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Smart Agriculture ›› 2022, Vol. 4 ›› Issue (3): 42-52.doi: 10.12133/j.smartag.SA202206007

• 专刊--智慧果园关键技术与装备 • 上一篇    下一篇

自走式果园多工位收获装备设计与试验

缪友谊1(), 陈红2,3(), 陈小兵1, 田皓予2,3, 袁栋1   

  1. 1.农业农村部南京农业机械化研究所,江苏 南京 210014
    2.华中农业大学 工学院,湖北 武汉 430070
    3.农业农村部长江中下游农业装备重点实验室,湖北 武汉 430070
  • 收稿日期:2022-06-20 出版日期:2022-09-30 发布日期:2022-11-23
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划项目(2017YFD0701400)
  • 作者简介:缪友谊(1989-),男,硕士,助理研究员,研究方向为果园及植保技术与装备。E-mail:youyi917@163.com
  • 通讯作者: 陈红 E-mail:youyi917@163.com;chenhong@mail.hzau.edu.cn

Design and Test of Self-Propelled Orchard Multi-Station Harvesting Equipment

MIAO Youyi1(), CHEN Hong2,3(), CHEN Xiaobing1, TIAN Haoyu2,3, YUAN Dong1   

  1. 1.Nanjing Institute of Agricultural Mechanization, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Nanjing 210014, China
    2.College of Engineering, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
    3.Key Laboratory of Agricultural Equipment in the Middle and Lower Reaches of the Yangtze River, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Wuhan 430070, China
  • Received:2022-06-20 Online:2022-09-30 Published:2022-11-23
  • corresponding author: CHEN Hong E-mail:youyi917@163.com;chenhong@mail.hzau.edu.cn

摘要:

为解决现代化果园水果收获过程中人工劳动强度大、作业效率低、配套机械匮乏等问题,结合果树矮砧宽行密植模式和农艺种植要求,本研究设计了一种自走式果园多工位收获装备。首先介绍了自走式果园多工位收获装备的整机结构和工作原理,然后根据“两侧、两高度、六工位”采摘作业模式,对履带自走式底盘、扩展作业平台、果实自动输送装箱及转运系统的关键部件进行了参数分析、计算与结构设计。田间试验结果表明,所设计的自走式果园多工位收获装备可同步于六工位人工采收速度,苹果采收损伤率为4.67%,装箱均布系数为1.475,装箱速度为72.9个/min,能够满足果园采收作业要求。

关键词: 履带底盘, 扩展作业平台, 自动输送装箱, 装箱均布系数, 采收损伤率, 转运系统

Abstract:

In order to solve the problems of high labor intensity, low efficiency of manual operation and lack of supporting machinery in the fruit harvesting of modern orchards, a self-propelled orchard multi-station harvesting equipment was designed in combination with the fruit tree dwarf anvil wide-row dense planting mode and agronomic planting requirements. The whole machine structure and working principle of the self-propelled orchard multi-station harvesting equipment were expounded. According to the environmental conditions of mountainous orchards, the crawler chassis structure was designed, and the working speed was 0~2 km/h. The operating platform including left extension platform and right extension platform was designed according to the difference of fruit tree row spacing, and the working width of the operating platform was 1500~2700 mm. In order to improve the working efficiency and ensure the same picking speed of upper and lower operators, the picking operation mode of "two sides, two heights and six stations" was proposed by comparing the difference in the working flexibility between the operator on the platform and the operator on the ground during the operation of the machine, and the in-and-out channels of fruit boxes and the automatic collection and packing device were designed. The front and rear unobstructed fruit box access system was composed of the front loading and unloading mechanism, the rear loading and unloading mechanism and the fruit box slide rail, which was convenient for the empty fruit box to enter the fruit loading station of the working platform from the front and unloading from the rear after the fruit was filled. Six sub-conveyor belts were designed to handle apples harvested by six non interacting operators at the same time. The prototype was test in the field, and the packing uniform distribution coefficient calculation method was proposed to evaluate the uniformity of fruit packing, and the performance of the prototype was comprehensively evaluated in combination with the fruit damage rate and packing speed. The results showed that, the designed self-propelled orchard multi-station harvesting equipment could synchronize with the six stations manual harvesting speed. At the same time, with the help of the expansion platform, the apple picking range covered the entire canopy of the fruit tree. The prototype worked smoothly, and the speed of each conveyor belt was in good coordination with manual picking, and there was no apple congestion occurred. The apple harvest damage rate was 4.67%, the packing uniform distribution coefficient was 1.475, and the packing speed was 72.9 apples per minute, which could meet the requirements of orchard harvest operation.

Key words: crawler chassis, extended working platform, automatic conveyor packing, packing uniformity factor, harvest damage rate, transfer system

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