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Smart Agriculture ›› 2022, Vol. 4 ›› Issue (3): 12-23.doi: 10.12133/j.smartag.SA202207002

• Special Issue--Key Technologies and Equipment for Smart Orchard • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Three-Dimensional Virtual Orchard Construction Method Based on Laser Point Cloud

FENG Han1(), ZHANG Hao1, WANG Zi1, JIANG Shijie1, LIU Weihong1, ZHOU Linghui2, WANG Yaxiong2, KANG Feng2, LIU Xingxing1, ZHENG Yongjun1,3()   

  1. 1.College of Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, China
    2.College of Engineering, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China
    3.Modern Agricultural Equipment and Facilities Engineering Research Center, Beijing 100083, China
  • Received:2022-07-05 Online:2022-09-30


To solve the problems of low level of digitalization of orchard management and relatively single construction method, a three-dimensional virtual orchard construction method based on laser point cloud was proposed in this research. First, the hand-held 3D point cloud acquistion equipment (3D-BOX) combined with the lidar odometry and mapping (SLAM-LOAM) algorithm was used to complete the acquisition of the point cloud data set of orchard; then the outliers and noise points of the point cloud data were removed by using the statistical filtering algorithm, which was based on the K-neighbor distance statistical method. To achieve this, a distance threshold model for removing noise points was established. When a discrete point exceeded, it would be marked as an outlier, and the point was separated from the point cloud dataset to achieve the effect of discrete point filtering. The VoxelGrid filter was used for down sampling, the cloth simulation filtering (CSF) cloth simulation algorithm was used to calculate the distance between the cloth grid points and the corresponding laser point cloud, and the distinction between ground points and non-ground points was achieved by dividing the distance threshold, and when combined with the density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise (DBSCAN) clustering algorithm, ground removal and cluster segmentation of orchard were realized; finally, the Unity3D engine was used to build a virtual orchard roaming scene, and convert the real-time GPS data of the operating equipment from the WGS-84 coordinate system to the Gauss projection plane coordinate system through Gaussian projection forward calculation. The real-time trajectory of the equipment was displayed through the LineRenderer, which realized the visual display of the motion trajectory control and operation trajectory of the working machine. In order to verify the effectiveness of the virtual orchard construction method, the test of orchard construction method was carried out in the Begonia fruit and the mango orchard. The results showed that the proposed point cloud data processing method could achieve the accuracy of cluster segmentation of Begonia fruit trees and mango trees 95.3% and 98.2%, respectively. Compared with the row spacing and plant spacing of fruit trees in the actual mango orchard, the average inter-row error of the virtual mango orchard was about 3.5%, and the average inter-plant error was about 6.6%. And compared the virtual orchard constructed by Unity3D with the actual orchard, the proposed method can effectively reproduce the actual three-dimensional situation of the orchard, and obtain a better visualization effect, which provides a technical solution for the digital modeling and management of the orchard.

Key words: virtual orchards, point cloud processing, Unity3D, trajectory visualization, LiDAR, SLAM-LOAM

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