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Table of Content

    30 June 2021, Volume 3 Issue 3
    Topic--Intelligent Plant Protection Machinery and Spraying Technology
    Research Progress of Key Technologies and Verification Methods of Numerical Modeling for Plant Protection Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Application | Open Access
    TANG Qing, ZHANG Ruirui, CHEN Liping, LI Longlong, XU Gang
    2021, 3(3):  1-21.  doi:10.12133/j.smartag.2021.3.3.202107-SA004
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    With the increasing application of plant protection unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) in precision agriculture, the numerical simulation methods for the development of the downwash flow field of the plant protection UAV and the deposition and drift process of droplets affected by the downwash flow field have achieved rapid and diversified development, but the advantages, disadvantages, scope of application, and verification of each method still lack a systematic review. This article discusses the inviscid model, computational fluid dynamics model and lattice Boltzmann model (LBM) respectively. The advantage of the inviscid wake vortex model based on the vortex element method is that the calculation process is simple. Moreover, integrated with the most widely used aerial spray drift prediction software AGricultural DISPersal (AGDISP), it can be a promising way to do real-time UAV spray drift prediction. But due to lack of viscosity and turbulence models, the droplet deposition and drift simulation accuracy of inviscid model is relatively lower than other models. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model includes the finite volume method (FVM) and the finite difference method (FDM). The FVM in the computational fluid dynamics model has high robustness and can be applied to the simulation of various complex environments. Many commercial CFD software are based on FVM and achieved a fast development in aerial spray modeling recently. However, the FVM is greatly affected by the quality of the mesh, and its commonly used upwind style has limited accuracy (second-order accuracy). Under the same mesh density, it is easier to generate artificial dissipation when simulating the rotor tip vortex than the finite difference method. As a result, the simulated rotor tip vortex dissipation speed is much faster than the actual situation. Compared with the FVM, the structured grid used in the FDM is easier to construct a high-order precision numerical format. Which can reach 4-5 orders of accuracy, and with adaptive grid technology, FDM can simulate the evolution of rotor tip vortex with high temporal and spatial accuracy, and can reproduce the typical flow structure development process of the real rotor downwash flow field. However, it also has problems such as high grid structure requirements and excessive computing power requirements. LBM has advantages in computing three-dimensional flow field problems with complex boundary conditions and non-stationary moving objects. However, there are still shortcomings in its functional diversity and completeness. The accuracy of the numerical models mentioned above still needs field test and indoor experiment such as high-speed Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV)/ Phase Doppler Interferometry (PDI) method to verify and optimize. The authors finally pointed out the future direction of plant protection UAV application simulation and verification.

    Investigation on Advances of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Application Research in Agriculture and Forestry | Open Access
    CHEN Meixiang, ZHANG Ruirui, CHEN Liping, TANG Qing, XIA Lang
    2021, 3(3):  22-37.  doi:10.12133/j.smartag.2021.3.3.202107-SA006
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    Unmanned Aerial Vehicle(UAV) application in agriculture and forestry has the unique advantages of high efficiency, water and pesticide saving, and strong adaptability to complex terrain. The application research of UAV in agriculture and forestry has shown a fast growing trend. In order to explore the research hotspots and the scientific impact of countries/regions and institutions on UAV application in agriculture and forestry, the relevant literatures in the Web of Science(WoS) core collection database (2011-2020) were collected. The bibliometrics analysis was performed on the journal articles of UAV application in agriculture and forestry based on VOSviewer, WoS analysis tools and Microsoft Excel. The analysis results showed that the number of published papers increased rapidly since 2017, the researches on UAV application in agriculture and forestry were carried out in 94 countries/regions, including1778 institutions. Due to the strong scientific research group in the application of UAV in agriculture and forestry of the United States, China and Australia, a large number of papers had been published, resulting in a great academic influence. Remote sensing was the most widely used technology field of UAV application in agriculture and forestry, mainly involving remote sensing technology, ecological environment science, image processing technology, geological science, etc. Engineering was an important technical field of UAV application in agriculture and forestry, mainly involving control technology, sensor technology and fluid computing modeling technology related to UAV aerial pesticide application.There were 1508 articles and reviews been published in 398 journals, about 1.90% of all journals included in WoS core collection database, indicating that more and more journals paid attention to the application research of UAV in agriculture and forestry. Remote Sensing sponsored by MDPI (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute) was the journal that published the most of papers, the most cited paper mainly focused on the research status of UAV system in photogrammetry and remote sensing, including sensing, navigation, positioning and general data processing, etc. In addition, the analysis of the research hotspots of UAV application in agriculture and forestry showed that UAV pesticide application, UAV remote sensing of diseases and pests, plant phenotype acquisition were the research hotspots. This study can provide references for innovation research and cooperation between research teams of UAV application in agriculture and forestry.

    Evaluation of Droplet Size and Drift Distribution of Herbicide Sprayed by Plant Protection Unmanned Aerial Vehicle in Winter Wheat Field | Open Access
    WANG Guobin, HAN Xin, SONG Cancan, YI Lili, LU Wenxia, LAN Yubin
    2021, 3(3):  38-51.  doi:10.12133/j.smartag.2021.3.3.202107-SA005
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    With the continuous increase of the spraying area, the problem of droplet drift risk in the spraying process of UAV is becoming increasingly prominent, especially the herbicide drift. In order to clarify the effect of the herbicide solution on the droplet size and the deposition and drift distribution characteristics sprayed by UAVs, the droplet sizes of 15 herbicide solutions sprayed by the centrifugal rotary atomizer nozzle installed in the plant protection UAV were measured in the laboratory, and the distribution of droplet deposition and drift in the spraying area and drift area were measured by adding a fluorescent tracer (60 g/hm2) to the tank in the field. The results showed that the herbicide solution had a significant effect on the droplet size distribution. The DV50 of all the other solutions was reduced after sprayed by the centrifugal atomizer except the Carfentrazone-ethyl water dispersible granule, and the maximum decrease ratio was 22.0%. The proportion of small droplets (V<150 μm) increased, with the maximum value of 50.8%. When the environmental crosswind speed was 3.76 m/s, the coverage and number of droplets in the spraying area were only 41.3% and 42.2% of that at 0.74 m/s, and the deposition uniformity was significantly reduced. In the drift zone, the deposition amount of droplets was under 10% of in-swath zone at the downwind of 12 m, and the deposition of all the treatments at 50 m was lower than detection limits (0.0002 μL/cm2). The drift ratio increased with the wind speed increased. When the crosswind speed reached 3.76 m/s, the drift ratio of droplets was 46.4%. Under different crosswind, 90% of the total measured spray drift were 4.8?22.4 m. By fitting the deposition in the drift zone with drift distance and crosswind speed, the downwind deposition was proportional to the crosswind speed. This study provides data support for droplet drift distance of plant protection UAV spraying in wheat fields at different wind speeds in winter and provides a basis for spray drift buffer zone, drift risk assessment, and relevant standard formulation.

    Effects on Control Efficacy of Pesticide-Adjuvants Mixture against Rice Chilo Suppressalis(walker) Based on Plant Protection Unmanned Aerial Vehicle | Open Access
    ZI Le, ZANG Yu, HUANG Junhao, BAO Ruifeng, ZHOU Zhiyan, XIAO Hanxiang
    2021, 3(3):  52-59.  doi:10.12133/j.smartag.2021.3.3.202105-SA007
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    To explore the effect of pesticide-adjuvants mixture on the control efficacy against Rice Chilo Suppressalis(walker). This study designed a three-factor, three-level orthogonal experiments with pesticides (10% emamectin benzoate·indoxacard SC, 5% chlorantraniliprole SC and 0.8% rotenone SC), adjuvants(organosilicon, lecithin and mineral Oil) , spray volume (21,24 and 27 L/hm2), referred to the three-factor, three-level orthogonal experimental scheme. And made the blank factor the deviation to analyze its rationality. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) statistical method was used to analyze the significance level of each factor. Duncan's new multiple range test (DMRT) method was used to analyze the order of the influence of different levels of each factor on the control efficacy against Rice Chilo Suppressalis(walker). The results showed that, under the experiment conditions of this research, the mean square value of the deviation factor was smaller than the mean square value of the pesticides, the adjuvants and the spray volume, and the deviation of the orthogonal experiment was within a reasonable range. The main order of the effect of the three factors on the control efficacy of Rice Chilo Suppressalis(walker) was: adjuvants > pesticides > spray volumn. On the 14th day after spraying, pesticides showed a significant effect on the control efficacy (P<0.05) and adjuvants showed a highly significant effect on the control efficacy (P<0.01), and spray volume showed no significant effect on the control efficacy. On the 14th day after spraying, the level 3 of the factor "pesticides" was more effective, in the order of Rotenone > Chlorantraniliprole > Emamectin Benzoate·Indoxacard. The level 1 of the factor "adjuvants" was more effective, in the order of Organosilicon > Lecithin > Mineral Oil. The level 3 of the factor "spray volume" was more effective, in the order of 27 L/hm2 > 24 L/hm2 > 21 L/hm2. Therefore, a preferred pesticide-adjuvants mixture method was 0.8% rotenone SC, organosilicon adjuvants and 27 L/hm2 of spray volume, which had a rapid and long-lasting control efficacy, and its control efficacy in the field reached 81.45% on the 14th day after spraying. Additionally, there was also a satisfactory pesticide-adjuvants mixture method that was 5% Chlorantraniliprole, organosilicon adjuvants and 24 L/hm2 of spray volume. This mixture method also performed well, achieving 79.3% control efficacy in the field on the 14th day after spraying. This study could provide a reference for the optimization of the mixture methods of solutions (pesticides, adjuvants and spray volume) for controlling Rice Chilo Suppressalis(walker).

    Development and Performance Test of Variable Spray Control System Based on Target Leaf Area Density Parameter | Open Access
    FAN Daoquan, ZHANG Meina, PAN Jian, LYU Xiaolan
    2021, 3(3):  60-69.  doi:10.12133/j.smartag.2021.3.3.202107-SA007
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    Variable spray technology is an important means to improve pesticide utilization rate and save pesticide. Fruit tree is a kind of three-dimensional space, and the densities of branches and leaves in the canopy of fruit trees at different locations are different at the same time. The ideal state of spray is to adjust the amount of spray according to local characteristics, so as to realize the application of the spray on the canopy of fruit trees as required and improve the utilization rate of pesticide. In order to achieve the effect of reducing the dosage and increasing the efficiency of pesticide application, a variable spray control system was developed and the methods for computing leaf area density parameter and pulse width modulation(PWM)'s duty ratio of actuators were proposed. As the dosage parameter, the leaf area density was derived based on the point cloud density detected by LiDAR sensor on the upper computer. Then PWM's duty ratio was calculated based on the leaf area density and sent to the slave computer-PLC in real time. The communication between upper and slave computer was carried out through RS485 standard. So the spray flow of each nozzle was controlled by the switching frequency of the solenoid valve with PWM's duty ratio signal. Key parameters were obtained by the test including the net size of spray unit, delay time of the system and the function relationship between the PWM's duty ratio and the spray flow of nozzle. The test results showed that there was a linear relationship between the PWM's duty ratio and the spray flow of nozzle under the pressure of 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 MPa, and the linear goodness of fit were all above 0.98. Finally, the effectiveness of the variable spray system was verified by the spray test. The test results showed that the minimum number of droplets per unit area (cm2) on the water-sensitive paper was 35 drops at the sampling point, which was higher than the 25 drops defined by the common method for the spray amplitude of aerosol in the air supply spray. Under 39.9% of the canopy ratio between the target canopy area and the whole area, the variable spraying mode saved 71.96% of the pesticide dosage compared with the continuous spraying mode, and 29.72% compared with the target spraying mode, achieving the dose reduction effect.

    CFD Modeling and Experiment of Airflow at the Air Outlet of Orchard Air-Assisted Sprayer | Open Access
    ZHAI Changyuan, ZHANG Yanni, DOU Hanjie, WANG Xiu, CHEN Liping
    2021, 3(3):  70-81.  doi:10.12133/j.smartag.2021.3.3.202106-SA007
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    The tower-type sprayer produces swirling and irregular vertical airstream. The complex swirling results in airflow asymmetry between sides of the sprayer, and the vertical air velocity profile can be unpredictable when the rotational speed of the fan changes. The spray deposition is directly linked to the airflow pattern obtained from the sprayers. In order to study airflow field of this type of air-assisted sprayer, a CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) model for the tower-type sprayer was developed. A boundary condition setting method of UDF (User-Defined Function) sectional 3D air velocity was proposed. And the influences of turbulence models and the size of computational domain on CFD airflow simulation were studied. Using Fluent software, three different CFD models were established. The Model 1 took the average air velocity of 11 regions as the velocity inlet. The Model 2 used UDF segmented three-dimension air velocity line as the boundary condition. In order to further study the influence of the computational domain size on simulation, the Model 3 with a smaller computational domain was established. The turbulence model based on reynolds-averaged navier-stokes (RANS) control equation was used to calculate the airflow field in all models. In order to verify the reliability of the model, a three-dimensional measurement system of airflow field was designed, which was used for accurate and fast velocity measurement. The results showed that the Standard k-ε turbulence model, Realizable k-ε turbulence model, BSL k-w turbulence model, SST k-w turbulence model were suitable, and the Standard k-ε turbulence model was the best one. The CFD boundary condition setting method of UDF sectional three-dimension air velocity could improve the accuracy of simulation, and reduce the calculation complexity. With the same settings of other parameters, the performance of the CFD model with larger scale calculation domain was slightly better than that with smaller computational domain. The size of computational domain should be set to the appropriate extent, considering the calculation capacity and practical requirements of modelling. The research results could provide an important reference for CFD modeling of spray airflow field.

    Path Following Model Predictive Control of Four Wheel Independent Drive High Ground Clearance Sprayer | Open Access
    WANG Zijie, LIU Guohai, ZHANG Duo, SHEN Yue, YAO Zhen, ZHANG He
    2021, 3(3):  82-93.  doi:10.12133/j.smartag.2021.3.3.202105-SA006
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    In order to solve the problems of low transmission efficiency, high carbon emissions, environmental pollution, low intelligence, and poor flexibility in traditional fuel-driven and front-wheel steering high ground clearance sprayers, a new type of high ground clearance four-wheel independent drive (4WID) sprayer which was suitable for the unmanned driving was proposed in this research. The sprayer adopted the hybrid power of fuel and battery and was steered by the 4WID driving mode of the front and rear double steering axles. For this reason, the turning radius of the proposed 4WID sprayer was small, and the running track of the front and rear wheels were uniform in height, which reduced the phenomenon of seedling crushing during field plant protection operations. Considering the slippage and sinking of the driving wheel in the extremely complex operating environment of the paddy field, based on the linear time-varying kinematics model (LTV) of the sprayer, a layered path tracking control considering the slippage of the driving wheel was constructed. The upper model predictive controller (MPC) obtained the steering angle and movement speed of the sprayer according to the expected path and the current position of the vehicle to realize path tracking. The lower layer used fuzzy control and integral separation PID control to construct a driving wheel slip controller, so as to achieve effective control of path tracking, speed, and driving wheel slip, which improved the stability and path tracking accuracy of the sprayer in a complex operating environment. The co-simulation results of Adams and Matlab showed that under complex working conditions, the slip rate of the driving wheel of the sprayer was controlled within ±20%, so as to prevent excessive slip of the driving wheel from having adverse effects on the speed and steering angle, which was conducive to the improvement of the stability of the sprayer. The sprayer could be tracked quickly and accurately the desired path, the path tracking in road conditions outside attached coefficients were 0.3 and 0.7 of the lateral deviation could be controlled within ±0.018 m. In stage C roughness 3D road conditions, the sprayer could adjust the steering angle of the front wheels in time to stabilize the body posture and the lateral deviation could be controlled within ±0.054 m. Compared with the controller that didn't consider the slip of the driving wheel, the stability and path tracking accuracy of the sprayer had been significantly improved.

    Overview Article
    Research Advances and Prospects of Crop 3D Reconstruction Technology | Open Access
    ZHU Rongsheng, LI Shuai, SUN Yongzhe, CAO Yangyang, SUN Kai, GUO Yixin, JIANG Bofeng, WANG Xueying, LI Yang, ZHANG Zhanguo, XIN Dawei, HU Zhenbang, CHEN Qingshan
    2021, 3(3):  94-115.  doi:10.12133/j.smartag.2021.3.3.202102-SA002
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    Crop 3-dimensional (3D) reconstruction is one of the most fundamental techniques in crop phenomics, and is an important tool to accurately describe the holographic structure of crop morphology. 3D reconstruction models of crops are important for high-throughput crop phenotype acquisition, crop plant characteristics evaluation, and plant structure and phenotype correlation analysis. In order to promote and popularize the 3D reconstruction technology in crop phenotype research, the basic methods and application characteristics, the current advances of research and the prospects of 3D reconstruction in crops were review in this paper. Firstly, the existing methods of crop 3D reconstruction were summarized, the basic principles of each method were reviewed, the characteristics, advantages and disadvantages of each method were analyzed, the applicability of each method on the basis of the general process of crop 3D reconstruction methods were introduced, and the specific process and considerations for the implementation of each method were summarized. Secondly, the application of crop 3D reconstruction were divided into three parts: single crop reconstruction, field group reconstruction and root system, according to different target objects, and the applications of crop 3D reconstruction technology from these three perspectives were reviewed, the research advances of each method for different crop 3D reconstruction based on accuracy, speed and cost were explored, and the problems and challenges of crop 3D reconstruction in the context of different reconstruction objects were organized. Finally, the prospects of crop 3D reconstruction technology were analyzed.

    Intelligent Management and Control
    Irrigation Method and Verification of Strawberry Based on Penman-Monteith Model and Path Ranking Algorith | Open Access
    ZHANG Yu, ZHAO Chunjiang, LIN Sen, GUO Wenzhong, WEN Chaowu, LONG Jiehua
    2021, 3(3):  116-128.  doi:10.12133/j.smartag.2021.3.3.202104-SA001
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    Irrigation is an important factor that affects crop yield. In order to control irrigation of facility crops more effectively and accurately, this study took "Zhangji" strawberry as an example, introduced crop real-time growth characteristics into irrigation decision-making, and combined Penman-Monteith (P-M) model and knowledge reasoning to study the irrigation of strawberry. In the first step, the influencing factors and expert experience in identifying strawberry growth period of "Zhangji" strawberry irrigation were standardized, and the strawberry irrigation data structure based on Resource Description Framework (RDF) was established. The second step was to collect expert experience of strawberry irrigation according to the standardized knowledge structure model. Firstly, all data were unified into structured data, and then were stored in *.csv format together with expert experience, and strawberry irrigation knowledge map based on Neo4j was constructed. The third step was to collect the environmental data and plant data of strawberry in each growth period. The fourth step was using P-M model to calculate the initial irrigation value of strawberry, and then adjusted the initial irrigation value by knowledge reasoning.The fifth step was to conduct experimental planting and evaluate the sampled fruits. In knowledge reasoning, irrigation adjustment strategies of each expert was different. In strawberry irrigation experiment based on P-M model and path sorting algorithm, a group of irrigation reasoning values with the highest probability value were selected to adjust irrigation with the goal of maximizing strawberry yield. The experimental results showed that under the condition of harvesting at a specified time, The total fruit yield, average fruit yield per plant and average fruit weight percentage increased by 2478.5 g, 20.65 g and 12.15% (average fruit weight increased by 1.65 g per fruit) based on P-M model and path sorting algorithm compared with traditional P-M model, respectively. First, on the basis of P-M model, the yield-first irrigation adjustment strategy was adopted. Based on knowledge reasoning, the irrigation frequency and amount were adjusted timely according to the crop growth situation, which improved the yield. Second, under the condition of harvesting and recording yield at a specified time, the experiment accurately controlled the growth period to ensure early fruit ripening, while the other three groups of fruits were not fully mature and the yield of immature fruits were not calculated. Under the method of strawberry irrigation based on Penman-Monteith model and path sorting algorithm, the fruit was picked within a fixed time and reached 0.39 kg/cm2, which increased by 0.1 kg/cm2. Because the planting goal of this study was yield first, only the influence of irrigation on yield was considered. The experimental resulted show that the irrigation method based on model and knowledge reasoning could improve the yield of strawberry, and can provide a new idea for precise irrigation.

    The Accuracy Differences of Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Images Monitoring Maize Plant Height at Different Growth Stages | Open Access
    YANG Jin, MING Bo, YANG Fei, XU Honggen, LI Lulu, GAO Shang, LIU Chaowei, WANG Keru, LI Shaokun
    2021, 3(3):  129-138.  doi:10.12133/j.smartag.2021.3.3.202105-SA008
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    The digital elevation model (DEM) of maize population in field was constructed by using optical imaging equipment mounted on unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to study the accuracy difference of maize population height monitoring at different growth stages. Three cultivars and eight sowing date treatments were set up to structure maize population with different plant heights. A multi-rotor UAV with high-definition digital camera and multispectral imaging sensor was used to take RGB images and multispectral images in the experiment area on July 25th and August 27th, 2018, which were the biggest and smallest differences in plant height. The DEM data of maize population and canopy height were obtained with image pose correction, image mosaic, point cloud generation, and space reconstruction, et al. The canopy height and plant height were normalized, and the correlation between different cultivars and sowing date was analyzed based on UAV and manual plant height measurement. The feasibility of using DEM data of maize canopy to monitor the difference of plant height was clarified. The results showed that the height difference of maize population could be reflected by the digital elevation information obtained from high-definition RGB camera and multispectral camera. The plant height monitoring accuracy of HD RGB camera was higher than that of multispectral camera. However, the monitoring accuracy of plant height was not enough under the ready-made image equipment and treatment method. So, it was difficult to reflect the smaller plant height difference of maize population. Growth stage had a great influence on the monitoring of maize plant height. When the canopy of early growth stage has not completely covered the surface or the leaf yellow and withered in the later stage of growth. The plant height of the population affected by the exposed surface was seriously underestimated. In this study, the effects of UAV imaging equipment on monitoring maize plant height were analyzed. The influence factors can be used as reference for the application of the method in field production.

    Time-Varying Heterotypic-Vehicle Cold Chain Logistics Distribution Path Optimization Model | Open Access
    LIU Siyuan, CHEN Tian'en, CHEN Dong, ZHANG Chi, WANG Cong
    2021, 3(3):  139-151.  doi:10.12133/j.smartag.2021.3.3.202108-SA004
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    In view of the problems of constant speed and single carbon emission calculation method in the distribution model of fresh agricultural products in the transportation link of agricultural supply chain, combined with the time-varying characteristics of road network and the new multi vehicle carbon emission calculation method, this study put forward the distribution route optimization model of fresh agricultural products with four optimization objectives, which were the distribution distance, multi vehicle carbon emission, goods loss and vehicle fixed cost. In this model, the calculation of fuel consumption and carbon emission in the model would be affected by many factors, among which the load is the most important factor: Firstly, the average fuel consumption per 100 km of different trucks was calculated, then the CO2 emission factors of various trucks were calculated according to the carbon balance principle, and finally the average value of the results of each truck was taken as the carbon emission factor of the vehicle. According to those characteristics of the model, an improved double strategies co-evolutionary ant colony system (DC-ACS) was proposed. In this study, the main method was used to transform the problem into a solvable single objective problem. Then, the ant colony algorithm combined the coevolution mechanism, adaptive pheromone update strategy and local search mechanism were used to improve the solution effect of the algorithm. Finally, an appropriate fitness calculation method and stagnation avoidance strategy were designed to enhance the ability of the algorithm to jump out of local optimization. The C105 example of Solomon dataset was solved by using the improved ant colony algorithm. The optimal solutions on the four optimization objectives were 937.94 km, 4961.48 CNY, 4081.78 CNY and 7500.87 CNY respectively, which proved the effectiveness of the model proposed in this study. Based on the effectiveness of the model, the experimental results showed that the total distribution cost of the improved ant colony algorithm reduced by more than 14% on average compared with the basic ant colony algorithm on the four optimization objectives, which proved that the improved ant colony algorithm had more advantages. The improved ant colony algorithm was used to solve large-scale examples with different distributions: centralized, random and mixed. The optimal total costs were 19939.53 CNY, 24095 CNY and 24397.58 CNY, respectively. To sum up, the proposed model and algorithm could provide a good reference for the urban distribution path decision-making of cold chain logistics enterprises, a new idea to improve the distribution path optimization model and optimization method of smart agricultural supply chain, and a reference for enterprises to further expand their scale.

    Multi-Objective Vegetable Transportation and Distribution Path Optimization with Time Windows | Open Access
    WANG Fang, TENG Guifa, YAO Jingfa
    2021, 3(3):  152-161.  doi:10.12133/j.smartag.2021.3.3.202109-SA010
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    There are higher requirements for the timeliness of vegetable transportation and distribution. In order to solve the problems of long transportation time, high total transportation cost and short preservation time of vegetables during transportation, considering the constraints such as vehicle load and time window, this study proposed a genetic simulated annealing algorithm (GA-SA) for multi-objective vegetable distribution path optimization with time windows. That was, the simulated annealing algorithm (SA) adaptive (Metropolis) acceptance criterion was introduced into the operation process of genetic algorithm (GA). The basic idea was: First, the original population was selected, crossed and mutated by genetic algorithm to form a new generation of path population. At this time, by introducing metropolis acceptance criterion, and then, after modifying the sub situation of the new generation path population and selecting cross mutation, a new target path population was obtained. The improved algorithm retained the excellent individual, and the convergence speed, jumped out of the local optimal solution found based on genetic algorithm, and then found the global optimal solution. Then, the multi-objective of returning all vehicles to the distribution center after distribution was the least time-consuming, the lowest cost and the least use of vehicles was achieved, and the optimal path of vegetable transportation was obtained. Taking Baoding city in Hebei province as the distribution center and some towns under the jurisdiction of Baoding city as the distribution points, the experiment of vegetable transportation path optimization was designed. The experiments of genetic algorithm, simulated annealing algorithm and genetic simulated annealing algorithm were carried out, respectively. The comparative analysis was carried out from the aspects of convergence speed, total distance, total time, vehicles and total cost. The experimental results showed that, compared with the genetic algorithm and simulated annealing algorithm, GA-SA could effectively accelerate its convergence speed. The total cost of the optimized distribution route reduced by about 23.7% and 4% respectively, the total distance reduced by 22.6% and 3% respectively, the time consumption reduced by 26.2 and 2.6 hours respectively, and 2 and 1 vehicles were used less respectively. This study could also provide reference for the research of cold fresh food and other transportation path optimization.