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Smart Agriculture ›› 2020, Vol. 2 ›› Issue (3): 98-107.doi: 10.12133/j.smartag.2020.2.3.202007-SA001

• Topic--Agricultural Artificial Intelligence and Big Data • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Hybrid Multi-Hop Routing Algorithm for Farmland IoT based on Particle Swarm and Simulated Annealing Collaborative Optimization Method

SUN Haoran1(), SUN Lin1, BI Chunguang1,2, YU Helong1,2()   

  1. 1.College of Information Technology, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun 130118, China
    2.Institute of Smart Agriculture, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun 130118, China
  • Received:2020-07-01 Revised:2020-09-22 Online:2020-09-30


Agricultural wireless sensor networks plays a key role in obtaining multi-source heterogeneous big data of farmland soil, environment and crop growth. The increasing network scale brings challenges to the application of agricultural Internet of Things. In order to solve the problem that sensors are not uniformly distributed in farmland and constrained by energy, a collaborative optimization hybrid multi hop routing algorithm, particle simulated multipath routing (PSMR) based on particle swarm optimization and simulated annealing was proposed. Firstly, cluster heads were selected by node residual energy and node degree weighting, and cluster structure was used to realize efficient dynamic networking of heterogeneous networks. Then, the multi hop data structure between cluster heads was used to solve the problem of high energy consumption in long-distance transmission of cluster heads. Particle swarm optimization and simulated annealing were used to improve the convergence speed, and sink nodes could accelerate the collection of aggregated data in cluster heads. The simulation results showed that compared with the energy-efficient load balancing multipath routing scheme (EMR), the network lifetime of PSMR algorithm was increased by 57%. EMR selected the data transmission link with low energy consumption and small delay by calculating the weight of total link hops and transmission energy consumption. Compared with greedy perimeter stateless routing-algorithm (GPSR-A algorithm), which could ensure the shortest data transmission distance and lower network transmission delay, the first dead sensor node was delayed for two rounds in the same network life cycle, and the residual energy standard deviation was reduced by 0.04 J, which had good network energy consumption balance. PSMR algorithm could reduce the extra energy consumption of remote cluster heads by multi hop between cluster heads, and improved the energy balance performance of cluster heads with different distances. It can provide technical basis for long-term, efficient and stable data acquisition and monitoring of large-scale farmland complex environment, and improve the resource utilization efficiency of agricultural Internet of Things.

Key words: large-scale farmland, particle swarm optimization, simulated annealing, wireless sensor networks, routing optimization, hybrid network architecture, data transmission link, Internet of Things

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