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Smart Agriculture ›› 2021, Vol. 3 ›› Issue (1): 96-108.doi: 10.12133/j.smartag.2021.3.1.202101-SA001

• Information Processing and Decision Making • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Improved AODV Routing Protocol for Multi-Robot Communication in Orchard

MAO Wenju1,2,3(), LIU Heng1,2,3, WANG Dongfei1,2,3, YANG Fuzeng1,2,3,4(), LIU Zhijie1,2,3   

  1. 1.College of Mechanical and Electronic Engineering, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China
    2.Apple Full Mechanized Scientific Research Base of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Yangling 712100, China
    3.Northern Agricultural Equipment Scientific Observation and Experimental Station, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Yangling 712100, China
    4.State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Agriculture on Loess Plateau, Yangling 712100, China
  • Received:2021-01-01 Revised:2021-02-23 Online:2021-03-30


To satisfy the communication needs of multiple robots working in orchards, an improved Ad Hoc on-demand distance vector routing protocol based on signal strength threshold and priority nodes (AODV-SP), and the prediction model of Wi-Fi signal reception in peach orchards, was proposed in this study. Different from the traditional AODV protocol, AODV-SP utilizes the idea of priority nodes and strength thresholds to construct a discovery routing algorithm and a selection routing algorithm by seeking priority nodes and calculating the maximum strength threshold between nodes, respectively. The discovery routing message and selection routing message of the AODV-SP protocol were designed according to the discovery routing and selection routing algorithms. To verify the performance of the AODV-SP protocol, the performance of the protocol with different maximum movement speeds of nodes was analyzed by using NS2 simulation software and the performance was compared with the traditional AODV protocol. The simulation results showed that the average end-to-end delay, route initiation frequency, and route overhead of AODV-SP protocol with the introduction of priority node and path signal strength thresholds were smaller than those of the traditional AODV protocol, and the packet delivery rate improved significantly compared with that of AODV protocol. Among them, when the maximum node movement speed was 5 m/s, the route initiation frequency and route overhead of AODV-SP protocol reduced by 3.65% and 7.09%, respectively, compared with AODV protocol. When the maximum node movement speed was 8 m/s, the packet delivery rate of AODV-SP protocol improved by 0.59% and the average end-to-end delay reduced by 13.09%. To further verify the simulation results of AODV-SP making AODV-SP protocol applicable to a multi-robot wireless communication system and ensure the normal operation of multi-robot wireless communication in orchards, a physical platform for multi-robot wireless communication was built in a laboratory environment, and software was designed to enable the physical platform to communicate properly under the AODV-SP protocol. And the physical platform for multi-robot wireless communication using the AODV-SP protocol was tested under static and dynamic conditions, respectively. The experiment results showed that, under static condition, when distance between nodes was less than or equal to 25 m, the packet loss rate of the robot was 0; when distance between nodes was 100 m, tthe packet loss rate of the robot was 21.01%, and the following robots could maintain the chain topology with the leader robot in dynamic conditions. Simulation and physical platform experiments results showed that the AODV-SP protocol could be used for the construction of multi-robot communication systems in orchard.

Key words: orchard, AODV-SP protocol, wireless, multi-robot, physical platform, simulation

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