Welcome to Smart Agriculture

Smart Agriculture ›› 2023, Vol. 5 ›› Issue (2): 82-92.doi: 10.12133/j.smartag.SA202304004

• Topic--Machine Vision and Agricultural Intelligent Perception • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Yield Prediction Models in Guangxi Sugarcane Planting Regions Based on Machine Learning Methods

SHI Jiefeng1(), HUANG Wei1, FAN Xieyang1, LI Xiuhua1,2(), LU Yangxu1, JIANG Zhuhui3, WANG Zeping4, LUO Wei1, ZHANG Muqing2   

  1. 1.School of Electrical Engineering, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004, China
    2.Guangxi Key Laboratory of Sugarcane Biology, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004, China
    3.Guangxi Sugar Industry Group, Nanning 530022, China
    4.Sugarcane Research Institute, Guangxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanning 530007, China
  • Received:2023-04-08 Online:2023-06-30


[Objective] Accurate prediction of changes in sugarcane yield in Guangxi can provide important reference for the formulation of relevant policies by the government and provide decision-making basis for farmers to guide sugarcane planting, thereby improving sugarcane yield and quality and promoting the development of the sugarcane industry. This research was conducted to provide scientific data support for sugar factories and related management departments, explore the relationship between sugarcane yield and meteorological factors in the main sugarcane producing areas of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. [Methods] The study area included five sugarcane planting regions which laid in five different counties in Guangxi, China. The average yields per hectare of each planting regions were provided by Guangxi Sugar Industry Group which controls the sugar refineries of each planting region. The daily meteorological data including 14 meteorological factors from 2002 to 2019 were acquired from National Data Center for Meteorological Sciences to analyze their influences placed on sugarcane yield. Since meteorological factors could pose different influences on sugarcane growth during different time spans, a new kind of factor which includes meteorological factors and time spans was defined, such as the average precipitation in August, the average temperature from February to April, etc. And then the inter-correlation of all the meteorological factors of different time spans and their correlations with yields were analyzed to screen out the key meteorological factors of sensitive time spans. After that, four algorithms of BP neural network (BPNN), support vector machine (SVM), random forest (RF), and long short-term memory (LSTM) were employed to establish sugarcane apparent yield prediction models for each planting region. Their corresponding reference models based on the annual meteorological factors were also built. Additionally, the meteorological yields of every planting region were extracted by HP filtering, and a general meteorological yield prediction model was built based on the data of all the five planting regions by using RF, SVM BPNN, and LSTM, respectively. [Results and Discussions] The correlation analysis showed that different planting regions have different sensitive meteorological factors and key time spans. The highly representative meteorological factors mainly included sunshine hours, precipitation, and atmospheric pressure. According to the results of correlation analysis, in Region 1, the highest negative correlation coefficient with yield was observed at the sunshine hours during October and November, while the highest positive correlation coefficient was found at the minimum relative humidity in November. In Region 2, the maximum positive correlation coefficient with yield was observed at the average vapor pressure during February and March, whereas the maximum negative correlation coefficient was associated with the precipitation in August and September. In Region 3, the maximum positive correlation coefficient with yield was found at the 20‒20 precipitation during August and September, while the maximum negative correlation coefficient was related to sunshine hours in the same period. In Region 4, the maximum positive correlation coefficient with yield was observed at the 20‒20 precipitation from March to December, whereas the maximum negative correlation coefficient was associated with the highest atmospheric pressure from August to December. In Region 5, the maximum positive correlation coefficient with yield was found at the average vapor pressure from June and to August, whereas the maximum negative correlation coefficient as related to the lowest atmospheric pressure in February and March. For each specific planting region, the accuracy of apparent yield prediction model based on sensitive meteorological factors during key time spans was obviously better than that based on the annual average meteorological values. The LSTM model performed significantly better than the widely used classic BPNN, SVM, and RF models for both kinds of meteorological factors (under sensitive time spans or annually). The overall root mean square error (RMSE) and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) of the LSTM model under key time spans were 10.34 t/ha and 6.85%, respectively, with a coefficient of determination Rv2 of 0.8489 between the predicted values and true values. For the general prediction models of the meteorological yield to multiple the sugarcane planting regions, the RF, SVM, and BPNN models achieved good results, and the best prediction performance went to BPNN model, with an RMSE of 0.98 t/ha, MAPE of 9.59%, and Rv2 of 0.965. The RMSE and MAPE of the LSTM model were 0.25 t/ha and 39.99%, respectively, and the Rv2 was 0.77. [Conclusions] Sensitive meteorological factors under key time spans were found to be more significantly correlated with the yields than the annual average meteorological factors. LSTM model shows better performances on apparent yield prediction for specific planting region than the classic BPNN, SVM, and RF models, but BPNN model showed better results than other models in predicting meteorological yield over multiple sugarcane planting regions.

Key words: meteorological factor, HP filter, sugarcane yield, BPNN model, LSTM model, machine learning

CLC Number: