Welcome to Smart Agriculture 中文
30 March 2022, Volume 4 Issue 1
Topic--Crop Growth and Its Environmental Monitoring
Methods and New Research Progress of Remote Sensing Monitoring of Crop Disease and Pest Stress Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle | Open Access
YANG Guofeng, HE Yong, FENG Xuping, LI Xiyao, ZHANG Jinnuo, YU Zeyu
2022, 4(1):  1-16.  doi:10.12133/j.smartag.SA202201008
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Diseases and pests are main stresses to crop production. It is necessary to accurately and quickly monitor and control the stresses dynamically, so as to ensure the food security and the quality and safety of agricultural products, protect the ecological environment, and promote the sustainable development of agriculture. In recent years, with the rapid development of the unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) industry, UAV agricultural remote sensing has played an important role in the application of crop diseases and pests monitoring due to its high image spatial resolution, strong data acquisition timeliness and low cost. The relevant background of UAV remote sensing monitoring of crop disease and pest stress was introduced, then the current methods commonly used in remote sensing monitoring of crop disease and pest stress by UAV was summarized. The data acquisition method and data processing method of UAV remote sensing monitoring of crop disease and pest stress were mainly discussed. Then, from the six aspects of visible light imaging remote sensing, multispectral imaging remote sensing, hyperspectral imaging remote sensing, thermal infrared imaging remote sensing, LiDAR imaging remote sensing and multiple remote sensing fusion and comparison, the research progress of remote sensing monitoring of crop diseases and pests by UAV worldwide was reviewed. Finally, the unresolved key technical problems and future development directions in the research and application of UAV remote sensing monitoring of crop disease and pest stress were proposed. Such as, the performance of the UAV flight platform needs to be optimized and upgraded, as well as the development of low-cost, lightweight, modular, and more adaptable airborne sensors. Convenient and automated remote sensing monitoring tasks need to be designed and implemented, and more remote sensing monitoring information can be obtained. Data processing algorithms or software should be designed and developed with greater applicability and wider applicability, and data processing time should be shortened by using 5G-based communication networks and edge computing devices. The applicability of the algorithm or model for UAV remote sensing monitoring of crop disease and pest stress needs to be stronger, so as to build a corresponding method library. We hope that this paper can help Chinese UAV remote sensing monitoring of crop diseases and pests to achieve more standardization, informatization, precision and intelligence.

Monitoring Wheat Powdery Mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici) Using Multisource and Multitemporal Satellite Images and Support Vector Machine Classifier | Open Access
ZHAO Jinling, DU Shizhou, HUANG Linsheng
2022, 4(1):  17-28.  doi:10.12133/j.smartag.SA202202009
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Since powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici) mainly infects the foliar of wheat, satellite remote sensing technology can be used to monitor and assess it on a large scale. In this study, multisource and multitemporal satellite images were used to monitor the disease and improve the classification accuracy. Specifically, four Landsat-8 thermal infrared sensor (TIRS) and twenty MODerate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) temperature product (MOD11A1) were used to retrieve the land surface temperature (LST), and four Chinese Gaofen-1 (GF-1) wide field of view (WFV) images was used to identify the wheat-growing areas and calculate the vegetation indices (VIs). ReliefF algorithm was first used to optimally select the vegetation index (VIs) sensitive to wheat powdery mildew, spatial-temporal fusion between Landsat-8 LST and MOD11A1 data was performed using the spatial and temporal adaptive reflectance fusion model (STARFM). The Z-score standardization method was then used to unify the VIs and LST data. Four monitoring models were then constructed through a single Landsat-8 LST, multitemporal Landsat-8 LSTs (SLST), cumulative MODIS LST (MLST) and the combination of cumulative Landsat-8 and MODIS LST (SMLST) using the Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier, that were LST-SVM, SLST-SVM, MLST-SVM and SMLST-SVM. Four assessment indicators including user accuracy, producer accuracy, overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient were used to compare the four models. The results showed that, the proposed SMLST-SVM obtained the best identification accuracies. The overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient of the SMLST-SVM model had the highest values of 81.2% and 0.67, respectively, while they were respectively 76.8% and 0.59 for the SLST-SVM model. Consequently, multisource and multitemporal LSTs can considerably improve the differentiation accuracies of wheat powdery mildew.

Research Progress of Deep Learning in Detection and Recognition of Plant Leaf Diseases | Open Access
SHAO Mingyue, ZHANG Jianhua, FENG Quan, CHAI Xiujuan, ZHANG Ning, ZHANG Wenrong
2022, 4(1):  29-46.  doi:10.12133/j.smartag.SA202202005
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Accurate detection and recognition of plant diseases is the key technology to early diagnosis and intelligent monitoring of plant diseases, and is the core of accurate control and information management of plant diseases and insect pests. Deep learning can overcome the disadvantages of traditional diagnosis methods and greatly improve the accuracy of diseases detection and recognition, and has attracted a lot of attention of researchers. This paper collected the main public plant diseases image data sets all over the world, and briefly introduced the basic information of each data set and their websites, which is convenient to download and use. And then, the application of deep learning in plant disease detection and recognition in recent years was systematically reviewed. Plant disease target detection is the premise of accurate classification and recognition of plant disease and evaluation of disease hazard level. It is also the key to accurately locate plant disease area and guide spray device of plant protection equipment to spray drug on target. Plant disease recognition refers to the processing, analysis and understanding of disease images to identify different kinds of disease objects, which is the main basis for the timely and effective prevention and control of plant diseases. The research progress in early disease detection and recognition algorithm was expounded based on depth of learning research, as well as the advantages and existing problems of various algorithms were described. It can be seen from this review that the detection and recognition algorithm based on deep learning is superior to the traditional detection and recognition algorithm in all aspects. Based on the investigation of research results, it was pointed out that the illumination, sheltering, complex background, different disorders with similar symptoms, different changes of disease symptoms in different periods, and overlapping coexistence of multiple diseases were the main challenges for the detection and recognition of plant diseases. At the same time, the establishment of a large-scale and more complex data set that meets the specific research needs is also a difficulty that need to face together. And at further, we point out that the combination of the better performance of the neural network, large-scale data set and agriculture theoretical basis is a major trend of the development of the future. It is also pointed out that multimodal data can be used to identify early plant diseases, which is also one of the future development direction.

Identification of Tomato Leaf Diseases Based on Improved Lightweight Convolutional Neural Networks MobileNetV3 | Open Access
ZHOU Qiaoli, MA Li, CAO Liying, YU Helong
2022, 4(1):  47-56.  doi:10.12133/j.smartag.SA202202003
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Timely detection and treatment of tomato diseases can effectively improve the quality and yield of tomato. In order to realize the real-time and non-destructive detection of tomato diseases, a tomato leaf disease classification and recognition method based on improved MobileNetV3 was proposed in this study. Firstly, the lightweight convolutional neural network MobileNetV3 was used for transfer learning on the image net data set. The network was initialized according to the weight of the pre training model, so as to realize the transfer and fine adjustment of large-scale shared parameters of the model. The training method of transfer learning could effectively alleviate the problem of model over fitting caused by insufficient data, realized the accurate classification of tomato leaf diseases in a small number of samples, and saved the time cost of network training. Under the same experimental conditions, compared with the three standard deep convolution network models of VGG16, ResNet50 and Inception-V3, the results showed that the overall performance of MobileNetV3 was the best. Next, the impact of the change of loss function and the change of data amplification mode on the identification of tomato leaf diseases were observed by using MobileNetV3 convolution network. For the test of loss value, focal loss and cross entropy function were used for comparison, and for the test of data enhancement, conventional data amplification and mixup hybrid enhancement were used for comparison. After testing, using Mixup enhancement method under focal loss function could improve the recognition accuracy of the model, and the average test recognition accuracy of 10 types of tomato diseases under Mixup hybrid enhancement and focal loss function was 94.68%. On the basis of transfer learning, continue to improve the performance of MobileNetV3 model, the dilated convolution convolution with expansion rate of 2 and 4 was introduced into convolution layer, 1×1 full connection layer after deep convolution of 5×5 was connected to form a perceptron structure in convolution layer, and GLU gating mechanism activation function was used to train the best tomato disease recognition model. The average test recognition accuracy was as high as 98.25%, the data scale of the model was 43.57 MB, and the average detection time of a single tomato disease image was only 0.27s, after ten fold cross validation, the recognition accuracy of the model was 98.25%, and the test results were stable and reliable. The experiment showed that this study could significantly improve the detection efficiency of tomato diseases and reduce the time cost of disease image detection.

Application Scenarios and Research Progress of Remote Sensing Technology in Plant Income Insurance | Open Access
CHEN Ailian, ZHAO Sijian, ZHU Yuxia, SUN Wei, ZHANG jing, ZHANG Qiao
2022, 4(1):  57-70.  doi:10.12133/j.smartag.SA202201011
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Plant income insurance has become an important part of agricultural insurance in China. It has been recommended to pilot since 2016 by Chinese government in several counties, and is now (2022) required to be implemented in all major grain producing counties in the 13 major grain producing provinces. The measurement of yield for plant income insurance in such huge volume urgently needs the support of remote sensing technology. Therefore, the development history and application status of remote sensing technology in the whole agricultural insurance industry was reviewed to help understanding the whole context circumstances of plant income insurance firstly. Then, the application scenarios of remote sensing technology were analyzed, and the key remote sensing technologies involved were introduced. The technologies involved include crop field plot extraction, crop classification, crop disaster estimation, and crop yield estimation. Research progress of these technologies were reviewed and summarized,and the satellite data sources that most commonly used in plant income insurance were summarized as well. It was found that to obtain a better support for a development of plant income insurance as well as all crop insurance from remote sensing communities, issues existed not only in the involved remote sensing technologies, but also in the remote sensing industry as well as the insurance industry. The most two important technical problems in the current application scenario of planting income insurance are that: the plot extraction and crop classification are not automated enough; the yield estimation mechanism is not strong, and the accuracy is not high. At the industry level, the first issue is the limitation of the remote sensing technology itself in that the remote sensing is not almighty, suffering from limited data source, either from satellite or from other platform, laborious data preprocessing, and pricey data fees for most of the data, and the second is the compatibility between the current business of the insurance industry and the combination of remote sensing. In this regard, this paper proposed in total five specific suggestions, which are: 1st, to establish a data distribution platform to solve the problems of difficult data acquisition and processing and standardization of initial data; 2nd, to improve the sample database to promote the automation of plot extraction and crop classification; 3rd, to achieve faster, more accurate and more scientific yields through multidisciplinary research; 4th, to standardize remote sensing technology application in agricultural insurance, and 5th, to write remote sensing applications in crop insurance contract. With these improvements, the application mode of plant income insurance and probably the whole agriculture insurance would run in a way with easily available data, more automated and intelligent technology, standards to follow, and contract endorsements.

Wheat Biomass Estimation in Different Growth Stages Based on Color and Texture Features of UAV Images | Open Access
DAI Mian, YANG Tianle, YAO Zhaosheng, LIU Tao, SUN Chengming
2022, 4(1):  71-83.  doi:10.12133/j.smartag.SA202202004
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In order to realize the rapid and non-destructive monitoring of wheat biomass, field wheat trials were conducted based on different densities, nitrogen fertilizers and varieties, and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) was used to obtain RGB images in the pre-wintering stage, jointing stage, booting stage and flowering stage of wheat. The color and texture feature indices of wheat were obtained using image processing, and wheat biomass was obtained by manual field sampling in the same period. Then the relationship between different color and texture feature indices and wheat biomass was analyzed to select the suitable feature index for wheat biomass estimation. The results showed that there was a high correlation between image color index and wheat biomass in different stages, the values of r were between 0.463 and 0.911 (P<0.05). However, the correlation between image texture feature index and wheat biomass was poor, only 5 index values reached significant or extremely significant correlation level. Based on the above results, the color indices with the highest correlation to wheat biomass or the combining indices of color and texture features in different growth stages were used to construct estimation model of wheat biomass. The models were validated using independently measured biomass data, and the correlation between simulated and measured values reached the extremely significant level (P<0.01), and root mean square error (RMSE) was smaller. The R2 of color index model in the four stages were 0.538, 0.631, 0.708 and 0.464, and RMSE were 27.88, 516.99, 868.26 and 1539.81 kg/ha, respectively. The R2 of the model combined with color and texture index were 0.571, 0.658, 0.753 and 0.515, and RMSE were 25.49, 443.20, 816.25 and 1396.97 kg/ha, respectively. This indicated that the estimated results using the models were reliable and accurate. It also showed that the estimation models of wheat biomass combined with color and texture feature indices of UAV images were better than the single color index models.

Monitoring Specified Depth Soil Moisture in Field Scale with Ground Penetrating Radar | Open Access
ZHANG Wenhan, DU Keming, SUN Yankun, LIU Buchun, SUN Zhongfu, MA Juncheng, ZHENG Feixiang
2022, 4(1):  84-96.  doi:10.12133/j.smartag.SA202202010
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Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is one of the emerging technologies for soil moisture measurement. However, the measurement accuracy is difficult to determine due to some influence factors including radar wave frequency, soil texture type, etc. The GPR equipment with 1000 MHz center frequency and the measurement method of common midpoint (CMP) were adopted in the research to collect radar wave raw data in the selected field area under arid soil and moist soil conditions. The transmitter and receiver antennas of the GPR equipment were moved 0.01 m respectively in opposite directions on each radar wave raw data collection. Therefore, a CMP radar image consisted of 100 pieces of radar wave raw data by increasing the antenna distance from 0 m to 2 m. Each radar wave raw data indicated that the radar waves were reflected in the reflective layer with different dielectric constant under the same antenna distance. And the reflected and refracted radar waves were acquired by the receiving antenna at different two-way travel time respectively, and recorded in the computer. The collection of CMP soundings aimed to determine the inversion accuracy, optimum inversion depth, effective inversion depth and optimal inversion model of soil moisture content at different depth ranges and adjacent reflective layers by GPR at field scale. The reflected and refracted radar wave data were extracted from the raw data. The velocities of the surface waves and reflected waves were obtained respectively from the line slope of the surface wave data and the hyperbolic curves fitting of the reflected wave data. In addition, the relative dielectric constant of the soil at specified depth were deduced according to the soil dielectric constant and its reflected wave velocity. Moreover, 4 different models including Topp, Roth, Herkelrath and Ferre were used to figure out the soil volumetric water content inversion. Meanwhile, the measured data of soil volumetric moisture content obtained by oven drying method were used to verify the accuracy of the inversion results. The results showed that the effective inversion depth of 1000 MHz GPR ranged from 0 to 50 cm. The best inversion depth was 50 cm in arid soil and 40 cm in moist soil. The Roth model had the best correlation and stability with the highest R2 was 0.750, the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) was 0.0114 m3/m3 and the lowest Relative Error (RE) was 3.0%. The GPR could possess the capacity of quick, precise and non-destructive measurement of specified depth soil moisture in field scale. The inversion model of soil moisture content needs to be calibrated according to different soil conditions.

Estimating the Differences of Light Capture Between Rows Based on Functional-Structural Plant Model in Simultaneous Maize-Soybean Strip Intercropping | Open Access
LI Shuangwei, ZHU Junqi, EVERS Jochem B., VAN DER WERF Wopke, GUO Yan, LI Baoguo, MA Yuntao
2022, 4(1):  97-109.  doi:10.12133/j.smartag.SA202202002
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Intercropping creates a heterogeneous canopy and triggers plastic responses in plant growth and structural development. In order to quantify the effect of planting pattern, strip width and row position on the structural development and light capture of maize and soybean in simultaneous intercropping, both experimental and modelling approaches were used. Field experiments were conducted in 2017-2018 with two sole crops (maize and soybean) and two intercrops: Two rows of maize alternating with two rows of soybeans (2:2 MS) and three rows of maize alternating with six rows of soybean (3:6 MS). The morphological traits of maize and soybean e.g., leaf length and width, internode length and diameter, leaf and petiole declination angle in different rows and different planting patterns, and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) above and below the canopy of 2:2 MS were measured throughout the growing season. A functional-structural plant model of maize-soybean intercropping was developed in the GroIMP platform. The model was parameterized based on the morphological data set of 2017, and was validated with the leaf area index (LAI), plant height and PAR data set of 2018. The model simulated the morphological development of individual organs based on growing degree days (thermal time) and calculated the light capture at leaf level. The model well reproduced the observed dynamics of leaf area index and plant height (RMSE: 0.24-0.70 m2/m2 for LAI and 0.06-0.17 m for plant height), and the fraction of light capture in the 2:2 MS intercropping (RMSE: 0.06-0.10). Maize internode diameter in intercrops increased, but the internode length did not change. Soybean internodes in intercrops became longer and thinner compared to sole soybean probably caused by the shading imposed by maize, and the 2:2 MS had longer internodes than the 3:6 MS, indicating the effects of strip width. Simulated light capture of maize in 2:2 MS intercropping was 35.6% higher than sole maize. For maize in 3:6 MS intercropping, the light capture of the border rows and inner row were 27.8% and 20.3% higher than sole maize, respectively. Compared to sole soybean, the simulated light capture of soybean in border rows was 36.0% lower in 2:2 MS intercropping, and was 28.8% lower in 3:6 MS intercropping. For 3:6 MS intercropping, light capture of soybean in inner rows I and inner rows II were 4.1% and 1.8% lower than sole soybean, respectively. In the future, the model could be further developed and used to explore and optimize the planting patterns of maize soybean intercropping under different environmental conditions using light capture as an indicator.

Construction and Application of A Novel Abscisic Acid Electrochemical Immunosensor Based on Carboxylated Graphene-Sodium Alginate Nanocomposite | Open Access
DONG Hongtu, ZHOU Simeng, WANG Qingtao, WANG Cheng, LUO Bin, LI Aixue
2022, 4(1):  110-120.  doi:10.12133/j.smartag.SA202202007
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Abscisic acid (ABA) is an important plant hormone, which can control seed and bud dormancy, organ size control, senescence and death, and participate in both biological and abiotic stress, inhibit plant growth, and participate in plant disease resistance. In order to determine the content of ABA in plants quickly and accurately, a new type of ABA immunosensor was developed. To improve the detection performance of the sensor, the detection performance of the sensor was increased by modifying GR-COOH and SA on the electrode surface. The concentration of GR-COOH, SA, and ABA-Antibody were optimized, the optimal conditions for the three materials were 1.5 mg/ml, 1.25 mg/ml and 0.5 mg/ml. The immunosensor was constructed based on the electrode impedance changes (△Z )due to the binding reaction of ABA antibody and antigen. It was found that the sensor showed linear relationship with ABA in the response range of 10 pmol/L~1 μmol/L, R2 was 0.99927, and the detection limit was about 10 pmol/L. The sensor also had good selectivity and stability. Using the electrochemical immunosensor, the content of ABA in navel orange leaf that have been successfully inoculated with citrus Huanglongbing by PCR was determined, and healthy plants were used as control. The test results showed that the impedance changes(△Z ) of healthy leaves and diseased leaves were 72 and 823, respectively, which indicated that the level of ABA in the infected plants increased significantly. The sensor provides a tool for the detection of plant hormone levels under disease stress. The results showed that the content of ABA increased in the leaves of navel orange infected by citrus Huanglongbing, which indicated that ABA played an important role in plant disease resistance. Furthermore, the changes of gene expression of key enzymes CitZEP in ABA synthesis pathway were studied, The results showed that the expression of CitZEP increased in plants infected with Huanglongbing disease, and the results were consistent with the detection results of the sensor, which indicated that the sensor had good practicability.

Quantitative Determination of Plant Hormone Abscisic Acid Using Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy | Open Access
ZHANG Yanyan, LI Can, SU Rui, LI Linze, WEI Wentao, LI Baolei, HU Jiandong
2022, 4(1):  121-129.  doi:10.12133/j.smartag.SA202202001
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Plant hormone Abscisic Acid (ABA) plays an important role in regulating plant growth. However, the content of ABA in plant tissues is very low, and rapid and sensitive detection methods are urgently needed. In this study, a rapid and quantitative ABA detection method was established based on aptamer recognition and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscop (SERS). The gold nanoparticles modified by ABA aptamer had the characteristics of SERS signal enhancement and selective recognition, realizing the rapid and sensitive detection of trace ABA in complex plant sample matrix. When ABA molecules appeared in detect system, the aptamer would specifically bind with ABA molecules, and the aptamer folded into G-tetrad structure at same time, which wrapped ABA molecules in the tetrad structure, shortened the distance between ABA molecules and gold nanoparticles, and the enhanced and stable ABA molecules SERS signal were obtained. Under the condition of optimized aptamer concentration at 0.12 μmol/L, different concentrations of ABA solutions in the detection system were detected. Within the concentration range of 0.1-100 μmol/L, the SERS intensity of ABA presented a good linear relationship with the concentration. The detection limit of this method was 0.1 μmol/L and the linear correlation coefficient R2 was 0.9855. The repeatability test of 20 points randomly on SERS substrate showed that the relative standard deviation (RSD) was 6.71%, indicating the stability of SERS substrate was well. Furthermore, the substrate of gold nanoparticles modified by the ABA aptamer terminal with sulfhydryl group (SH-Apt) could be stored in the refrigerator for more than half a year, indicating that the substrate has good stability. Once the preparation of the synthesized SH-Apt modified gold nanoparticles was completed. It could be used on demand without the need to prepare SERS substrate for every detection. In this sense, the constructed aptamer SERS biosensor could realize the rapid and quantitative detection of ABA. The method was used for the determination of ABA in wheat leaves, and the result was in good agreement with the Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) (The max relative error was 9.13%). This biosensor is an exploratory study on the detection of plant hormones by SERS, and the results of the study will have important reference value for the subsequent quantitative and on-site detection of ABA, as well as the detection of other plant hormones.

Information Processing and Decision Making
Underwater Fish Species Identification Model and Real-Time Identification System | Open Access
LI Shaobo, YANG Ling, YU Huihui, CHEN Yingyi
2022, 4(1):  130-139.  doi:10.12133/j.smartag.SA202202006
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Convolutional neural network models have different advantages and disadvantages, it is becoming more and more difficult to select an appropriate convolutional neural network model in an actual fish identification project. The identification of underwater fish is a challenge task due to varies in illumination, low contrast, high noise, low resolution and sample imbalance between each type of image from the real underwater environment. In addition, deploying models to mobile devices directly will reduce the accuracy of the model sharply. In order to solve the above problems, Fish Recognition Ground-Truth dataset was used to training model in this study, which is provided by Fish4Knowledge project from University of Edinburgh. It contains 27,370 images with 23 fish species, and has been labeled manually by marine biologists. AlexNet, GoogLeNet, ResNet and DenseNet models were selected initially according to the characteristics of real-time underwater fish identification task, then a comparative experiment was designed to explore the best network model. Random image flipping, rotation and color dithering were used to enhance data based on ground-truth fish dataset in response to the limited number of underwater fish images. Considering that there was a serious imbalance in the number of samples in each category, the label smoothing technology was used to alleviate model overfitting. The Ranger optimizer and Cosine learning rate attenuation strategy were used to further improve the training effect of the models. The accuracy and recall rate information of each model were recorded and counted. The results showed that, the accuracy and recall rate of the fish recognition model based on DenseNet reached 99.21% and 96.77% in train set and validation set respectively, its F1 value reached 0.9742, which was the best model obtained in the experiment. Finally, a remote fish identification system was designed based on Python language, in this system the model was deployed to linux server and the Android APP was responsible for uploading fish images via http to request server to identify the fishes and displaying the identification information returned by server, such as fish species, profiles, habits, distribution, etc. A set of recognition tests were performed on real Android phone and the results showed that in the same local area net the APP could show fish information rapidly and exactly within 1 s.

Scale Adaptive Small Objects Detection Method in Complex Agricultural Environment: Taking Bees as Research Object | Open Access
GUO Xiuming, ZHU Yeping, LI Shijuan, ZHANG Jie, LYU Chunyang, LIU Shengping
2022, 4(1):  140-149.  doi:10.12133/j.smartag.SA202203003
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Objects in farmlands often have characteristic of small volume and high density with variable light and complex background, and the available object detection models could not get satisfactory recognition results. Taking bees as research objects, a method that could overcome the influence from the complex backgrounds, the difficulty in small object feature extraction was proposed, and a detection algorithm was created for small objects irrelevant to image size. Firstly, the original image was split into some smaller sub-images to increase the object scale, and the marked objects were assigned to the sub-images to produce a new dataset. Then, the model was trained again using transfer learning to get a new object detection model. A certain overlap rate was set between two adjacent sub-images in order to restore the objects. The objects from each sub-image was collected and then non-maximum suppression (NMS) was performed to delete the redundant detection boxes caused by the network, an improved NMS named intersection over small NMS (IOS-NMS) was then proposed to delete the redundant boxes caused by the overlap between adjacent sub-images. Validation tests were performed when sub-image size was set was 300×300, 500×500 and 700×700, the overlap rate was set as 0.2 and 0.05 respectively, and the results showed that when using single shot multibox detector (SSD) as the object detection model, the recall rate and precision was generally higher than that of SSD with the maximum difference 3.8% and 2.6%, respectively. In order to further verify the algorithm in small target recognition with complex background, three bee images with different scales and different scenarios were obtained from internet and test experiments were conducted using the new proposed algorithm and SSD. The results showed that the proposed algorithm could improve the performance of target detection and had strong scale adaptability and generalization. Besides, the new algorithm required multiple forward reasoning for a single image, so it was not time-efficient and was not suitable for edge calculation.

Authority in Charge: Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs of the People’s Republic of China
Sponsor: Agricultural Information Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Editor-in-Chief: Chunjiang Zhao, Academician of Chinese Academy of Engineering.

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