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  • Definition of academic misconduct for Smart Agriculture

    1 Range

    This standard defines the academic misconduct that may be involved by the authors, reviewers and editors of Smart Agriculture.

    2 Terminologies and Definitions

    The following terminologies and definitions apply to this standard.

    Plagiarism: The views of others were improperly stolen.

    Fabrication: The action of fabricating data or facts.

    Falsification: The deliberate modification of data and facts to make them less authentic.

    Inappropriate Authorship: The attribution or authorship behavior that does not correspond to the actual contribution to articles.

    Multiple submissions: the act of submitting the same paper or multiple papers with minor differences to two or more journals, or transfer to other journals within the agreed time limit.

    Overlapping publication: the act of repeatedly publishing the contents of the published literature without explanation.

    3 Types of academic misconduct by authors

     3.1 Plagiarism

     3.1.1 Views plagiarism

    The use of views from others without citation or explanation and publishing in one's own name shall be defined as plagiarism.

    The forms of plagiarism include:

    A) Directly using arguments, opinions, conclusions, etc., from other published literature without citation.

    B) Using without changing its original intention to paraphrase other people's arguments, opinions, conclusions, etc.

    C) Deleting part of other people's arguments, opinions and conclusions and use them without introduction.

    D) Splitting or recombining the arguments, opinions, conclusions, etc. of others and use them without introduction.

    E) Adding some content to others' arguments, opinions, conclusions, etc., and use it without introduction.

    3.1.2 Data plagiarism

    The use of data from published literature by others without citation or explanation and the publication in one's own name shall be defined as data plagiarism. The act of publishing data, images, research methods, written representations, etc., in one's own name.

    The forms of data plagiarism include:

    A) Directly using data from other published literature without citation.

    B) Data from other published literature are slightly modified and used without citation.

    C) Adding some data from other published literature and using it without citation.

    D) The data from other published literatures are partially deleted and used without citation.

    E) Changing the original order of the data in other published literatures and using it without citation.

    F) Changing the presentation mode of data in other published literatures and using it without citation, such as converting charts into words, or converting text into charts.

    3.1.3 Images plagiarism

    The use of images in other published literatures without citation or explanation and the publication in one's own name shall be defined as plagiarism.

    The forms of image plagiarism include:

    A) Directly using images from other published literatures without citation or explanation.

    B) Using images from other published literatures without citation or explanation after slighting modification.

    C) Adding some contents to images in other published literatures and using them without citation or explanation.

    D) Deleting some of the images from other published literatures and using them without citation or explanation.

    E) Using the enhanced part of pictures in other published literatures without citation or explanation.

    F) Using images in other published literatures to weaken part of the content without introduction or explanation.

    3.1.4 Research (Experimental) Methods Plagiarism

    The use of other person's original research (experimental) methods without citation or explanation, and publication in one's own name, shall be defined as plagiarism of research (experimental) methods.

    The forms of examples of research (experimental) methods of plagiarism include:

    A) Directly using original research (experimental) methods from other person's published literature without citation or explanation

    B) Modifying some non-core elements of original research (experimental) methods in others' published literature and using them without citation or explanation.

    3.1.5 Written Expression Plagiarism

    The main body of an paper or a part of an paper over quoted or heavily quoted the contents of other published literatures and publish them in one's own name without citation.

    The forms of written expression plagiarism include:

    A) Directly using all or most of the published literatures of others.

    B) Adding some contents to the published literature by others and publishing it in one's own name, such as adding data or adding new analysis.

    C) Reducing all or most of the published literatures of others and publish it in one's own name.

    D) Replacing the research objects in the published literatures of others and publish them in his own name.

    E) Changing the structure and sequence of the published articles and publishing them in one's own name.

    F) Recombining multiple published literatures of others into one paper for publication.

    3.2 Fabrication

    The forms of forgery include:

    A) Fabricate data, pictures, etc. which are not obtained from actual investigation or experiment.

    B) Forgery of samples that cannot be obtained again through repeated experiments, etc.

    C) Fabricating research methods and conclusions that are not consistent with reality or cannot be verified repeatedly.

    D) Fabricating materials, notes and references that can provide support for articles.

    E) Fabricating funding sources for relevant research in the paper.

    F) Fabricating information and comments of reviewers.

    3.3 Falsification

    The forms of falsifying include:

    A) original investigation records and experimental data that have been modifying, selecting, deleting or adding without authorization, so as to change the original intention of investigation records and experimental data.

    B) Splicing different images to construct unreal images.

    C) Removing a part of the images from the whole or add some imaginary parts, so as to change the interpretation of the image.

    D) Specific parts of the image are enhancing, blurring, moving, so as to change the interpretation of the image.

    E) Changing the original intention of the cited literatures to its own advantage.

    3.4 Inappropriate Authorship

    The forms of inappropriate authorship include:

    A) Excluding from the list of authors those who have made substantial contributions to the research involved in the article.

    B) Those who have not made substantial contributions to the research involved in the article shall be named in the article.

    C) Including someone on the author list without the consent of them.

    D) The author ranking is inconsistent with the actual contribution to the article.

    E) Providing false information such as the author's title, organization, educational background and research experience.

    3.5 Other academic misconduct

    Other academic misconduct includes:

    A) Adding the actual unreferenced literature to the references.

    B) Mark quotations from other literatures as direct quotations, including quotations from the original works.

    C) Failure to explain and acknowledge in an appropriate manner the research funds, experimental equipment, materials, data, ideas, and unpublished information provided by others (except for special requirements).

    D) Failure to disclose key information of the article to others or the society as agreed, thus infringing upon the right of publication of the journal.

    E) Unauthorized use of licensed copyright literatures.

    F) Without the permission of the copyright owner, if the copyright literautre is shared by more than one person.

    G) Using other people's copyright literatures without citation or incomplete information of cited literature without permission.

    H) The licensed use of other person's copyright literatures exceeds the permitted scope or purpose.

    I) Interfering with journal editors and reviewers in non-anonymous review procedures.

    J) Recommending reviewers to editors who have interests with authors.

    K) Entrusting a third institutions to write, invest or repair the paper or other people irrelevant to the content of the paper.

    L) Publishing articles in violation of confidentiality rules.

    4 Types of Academic Misconduct of Reviewers

    4.1 Review in Violation of Academic Ethics

    The behavior of condoning academic misconduct or the evaluation based on non-academic factors should be defined as the evaluation that violates academic ethics.

    The forms of reviewing in violation of academic ethics include:

    A) Turning a blind eye to the actual defects and academic misconduct found in the manuscript.

    B) Review opinions shall be based on non-academic factors such as the author's nationality, gender, nationality, status, region and the nature of his/her unit, rather than the scientific value, originality and writing quality of the article, as well as its relevance to the scope and purpose of the journal.

    4.2 Interfere with Review Procedures

    Deliberately delaying the review process or improperly affecting the publication decision shall be defined as interfering with the review process.

    The forms of interference review include:

    A)Failing to complete the review but fail to timely reject the review or negotiate with the journal.

    B) Unreasonably prolonged the review process.

    C) Contacting the author directly in the non-anonymous review process without the permission of the journal.

    D) Privately influence editors and influence publication decisions.

    4.3 Violation of Conflict of Interest Provisions

    Failure to disclose or conceal the interest relationship with the author of the reviewed paper, or deliberate recommendation of other reviewers with interest relationship with a particular manuscript, shall be defined as violation of the provisions on conflict of interest.

    The forms of the violation of the provisions of the conflict of interest include:

    A) Failure to explain to the editors as required a conflict of interest that may exclude them from the review process.

    B) Recommending to editors other reviewers who may or may not have a conflict of interest with a particular manuscript.

    C) Unfairly reviewing articles of authors with conflicting interests.

    4.4 Breach of Confidentiality Rules

    Sharing or using the contents of the approved manuscript with others without authorization, or failing to publish the contents of the manuscript publicly, shall be defined as violation of confidentiality provisions.

    The forms of breach of confidentiality include:

    A) Sharing the contents of the submitted manuscript with others outside the review process.

    B) Publishing contents of unpublished manuscripts or research results without authorization.

    C) Unauthorized use of the contents of the reviewed manuscript for purposes unrelated to the review process.

    5 Types of academic misconduct of editors

    5.1 Put forward editorial opinions in violation of academic and ethical standards

    The editorial opinions that do not follow the academic and ethical standards and the purpose of the journal should be defined as those that violate the academic and ethical standards.

    The presentation of editorial opinions in violation of academic and ethical standards includes:

    A) Providing editorial opinions based on non-academic standards and beyond the scope and purpose of the journal.

    B) Ignoring the ethical requirements related to journal articles to provide editorial opinions.

    5.2 Breach of Confidentiality Requirements

    It shall be defined as violation of confidentiality requirements if the author or reviewer's information is intentionally disclosed in the anonymous review, or if the contents of the edited manuscript are disclosed, disclosed or used without authorization, or the manuscript information is disclosed due to non-compliance with relevant regulations.

    The forms of breach of confidentiality include:

    A) Disclosing the relevant information of the author of the paper to the reviewer in the anonymous review.

    B) Disclosing the relevant information of the reviewer to the author in the anonymous review.

    C) Sharing the contents of the edited manuscript with others outside the editing program.

    D) Publishing contents of unpublished manuscripts or research results without authorization.

    E) Unauthorized use of manuscript content for purposes unrelated to the editing program.

    F) Violation of the regulations on the safe storage or destruction of manuscripts and electronic manuscript documents and related contents, resulting in the disclosure of information.

    5.3 Misappropriation of Manuscript Contents

    Unauthorized use of unpublished manuscript contents, or unauthorized use of unpublished manuscript contents without introduction or explanation, shall be defined as embezzlement of manuscript contents.

    The forms of misappropriation include:

    A) Using the contents of unpublished manuscripts without the permission of the author of the article.

    B) Using the contents of an unpublished manuscript without citation or explanation, with the permission of the author of the article.

    5.4 Other Academic Misconduct

    Other academic misconduct includes:

    A) Major topics have not been declared in accordance with the provisions.

    B) Publishing papers without the permission of the copyright owner.

    C) For manuscripts that need to provide relevant ethical review materials, relevant requirements are ignored and relevant procedures are not implemented.

    D) Publishing false or outdated periodical award information, database information, etc.

    E) Adding self-citation references of journals irrelevant to the published content of the paper at will, or require or suggest the author to cite specific literatures unnecessarily.

    F) Protocol and implementation of journal mutual citation for the purpose of improving the impact factor.

    G) Deliberately distorting the author's intention to modify the contents of the manuscript.

    Remarks:

    - This definitions refer to CY/T 174—2019  academic publishing specification—definition of academic misconduct.

    - In case of any discrepancy between Chinese and English version, Chinese version shall prevail.


    Editorial Office of Smart Agriculture

    April 24, 2020

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