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Smart Agriculture ›› 2023, Vol. 5 ›› Issue (1): 155-165.doi: 10.12133/j.smartag.SA202211008

• Intelligent Equipment and Systems • Previous Articles    

Real-Time Monitoring System for Rabbit House Environment Based on NB-IoT Network

QIN Yingdong1,2(), JIA Wenshen2()   

  1. 1.College of Computer and Information Engineering, Beijing University of Agriculture, Beijing 102206, China
    2.Institute of Quality Standard and Testing Technology, Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, Beijing 100097, China
  • Received:2022-11-21 Online:2023-03-30
  • Supported by:
    Key R&D Plan of Hebei Province (21375501D); Beijing Academy of Agricultural and Forestry Sciences Science and Technology Innovation Capacity Building Special Project (KJCX20230438); Beijing Agricultural University Degree and Graduate Education Reform and Development Project (2002YJS034); National Natural Science Foundation of China (31801634); Beijing Academy of Agricultural and Forestry Sciences Financial Additional Special Project (CZZJ202102)


To meet the needs of environmental monitoring and regulation in rabbit houses, a real-time environmental monitoring system for rabbit houses was proposed based on narrow band Internet of Things (NB-IoT). The system overcomes the limitations of traditional wired networks, reduces network costs, circuit components, and expenses is low. An Arduino development board and the Quectel BC260Y-NB-IoT network module were used, along with the message queuing telemetry transport (MQTT) protocol for remote telemetry transmission, which enables network connectivity and communication with an IoT cloud platform. Multiple sensors, including SGP30, MQ137, and 5516 photoresistors, were integrated into the system to achieve real-time monitoring of various environmental parameters within the rabbit house, such as sound decibels, light intensity, humidity, temperature, and gas concentrations. The collected data was stored for further analysis and could be used to inform environmental regulation and monitoring in rabbit houses, both locally and in the cloud. Signal alerts based on circuit principles were triggered when thresholds were exceeded, creating an optimal living environment for the rabbits. The advantages of NB-IoT networks and other networks, such as Wi-Fi and LoRa were compared. The technology and process of building a system based on the three-layer architecture of the Internet of Things was introduced. The prices of circuit components were analyzed, and the total cost of the entire system was less than 400 RMB. The system underwent network and energy consumption tests, and the transmission stability, reliability, and energy consumption were reasonable and consistent across different time periods, locations, and network connection methods. An average of 0.57 transactions per second (TPS) was processed by the NB-IoT network using the MQTT communication protocol, and 34.2 messages per minute were sent and received with a fluctuation of 1 message. The monitored device was found to have an average voltage of approximately 12.5 V, a current of approximately 0.42 A, and an average power of 5.3 W after continuous monitoring using an electricity meter. No additional power consumption was observed during communication. The performance of various sensors was tested through a 24-hour indoor test, during which temperature and lighting conditions showed different variations corresponding to day and night cycles. The readings were stably and accurately captured by the environmental sensors, demonstrating their suitability for long-term monitoring purposes. This system is can provide equipment cost and network selection reference values for remote or large-scale livestock monitoring devices.

Key words: NB - IoT, rabbit house, environmental monitoring, digital agriculture, low cost, Internet of Things, Arduino, MQTT

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