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Smart Agriculture ›› 2022, Vol. 4 ›› Issue (2): 150-162.doi: 10.12133/j.smartag.SA202203009

• Information Perception and Acquisition • Previous Articles    

Phenotypic Traits Extraction of Wheat Plants Using 3D Digitization

ZHENG Chenxi1,2,3(), WEN Weiliang1,2(), LU Xianju1,2, GUO Xinyu1,2, ZHAO Chunjiang1,2,3   

  1. 1.Information Technology Research Center, Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, Beijing, 100097, China
    2.Beijing Key Lab of Digital Plant, National Engineering Research Center for Information Technology in Agriculture, Beijing, 100097, China
    3.College of Information Engineering, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, 712100, China
  • Received:2022-03-14 Online:2022-06-30 Published:2022-08-05
  • corresponding author: WEN Weiliang E-mail:cissie_zheng@163.com;wenwl@nercita.org.cn


Aiming at the difficulty of accurately extract the phenotypic traits of plants and organs from images or point clouds caused by the multiple tillers and serious cross-occlusion among organs of wheat plants, to meet the needs of accurate phenotypic analysis of wheat plants, three-dimensional (3D) digitization was used to extract phenotypic parameters of wheat plants. Firstly, digital representation method of wheat organs was given and a 3D digital data acquisition standard suitable for the whole growth period of wheat was formulated. According to this standard, data acquisition was carried out using a 3D digitizer. Based on the definition of phenotypic parameters and semantic coordinates information contained in the 3D digitizing data, eleven conventional measurable phenotypic parameters in three categories were quantitative extracted, including lengths, thicknesses, and angles of wheat plants and organs. Furthermore, two types of new parameters for shoot architecture and 3D leaf shape were defined. Plant girth was defined to quantitatively describe the looseness or compactness by fitting 3D discrete coordinates based on the least square method. For leaf shape, wheat leaf curling and twisting were defined and quantified according to the direction change of leaf surface normal vector. Three wheat cultivars including FK13, XN979, and JM44 at three stages (rising stage, jointing stage, and heading stage) were used for method validation. The Open3D library was used to process and visualize wheat plant data. Visualization results showed that the acquired 3D digitization data of maize plants were realistic, and the data acquisition approach was capable to present morphological differences among different cultivars and growth stages. Validation results showed that the errors of stem length, leaf length, stem thickness, stem and leaf angle were relatively small. The R2 were 0.93, 0.98, 0.93, and 0.85, respectively. The error of the leaf width and leaf inclination angle were also satisfactory, the R2 were 0.75 and 0.73. Because wheat leaves are narrow and easy to curl, and some of the leaves have a large degree of bending, the error of leaf width and leaf angle were relatively larger than other parameters. The data acquisition procedure was rather time-consuming, while the data processing was quite efficient. It took around 133 ms to extract all mentioned parameters for a wheat plant containing 7 tillers and total 27 leaves. The proposed method could achieve convenient and accurate extraction of wheat phenotypes at individual plant and organ levels, and provide technical support for wheat shoot architecture related research.

Key words: wheat, three-dimensional digitization, visualization, phenotypic traits extraction

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