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Smart Agriculture ›› 2023, Vol. 5 ›› Issue (2): 56-67.doi: 10.12133/j.smartag.SA202304014

• Topic--Machine Vision and Agricultural Intelligent Perception • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Wheat Lodging Area Recognition Method Based on Different Resolution UAV Multispectral Remote Sensing Images

WEI Yongkang1(), YANG Tiancong1, DING Xinyao1, GAO Yuezhi1, YUAN Xinru1, HE Li1,2,3, WANG Yonghua1,3, DUAN Jianzhao1,2,3, FENG Wei1,2,3()   

  1. 1.Agronomy College of Henan Agriculture University, Zhengzhou 450046, China
    2.Key Laboratory of Regulating and Controlling Crop Growth and Development Ministry of Education, Zhengzhou 450046, China
    3.State Key Laboratory of Wheat and Maize Crop Science, Zhengzhou 450046, China
  • Received:2023-04-27 Online:2023-06-30

Abstract:

[Objective] To quickly and accurately assess the situation of crop lodging disasters, it is necessary to promptly obtain information such as the location and area of the lodging occurrences. Currently, there are no corresponding technical standards for identifying crop lodging based on UAV remote sensing, which is not conducive to standardizing the process of obtaining UAV data and proposing solutions to problems. This study aims to explore the impact of different spatial resolution remote sensing images and feature optimization methods on the accuracy of identifying wheat lodging areas. [Methods] Digital orthophoto images (DOM) and digital surface models (DSM) were collected by UAVs with high-resolution sensors at different flight altitudes after wheat lodging. The spatial resolutions of these image data were 1.05, 2.09, and 3.26 cm. A full feature set was constructed by extracting 5 spectral features, 2 height features, 5 vegetation indices, and 40 texture features from the pre-processed data. Then three feature selection methods, ReliefF algorithm, RF-RFE algorithm, and Boruta-Shap algorithm, were used to construct an optimized subset of features at different flight altitudes to select the best feature selection method. The ReliefF algorithm retains features with weights greater than 0.2 by setting a threshold of 0.2; the RF-RFE algorithm quantitatively evaluated the importance of each feature and introduces variables in descending order of importance to determine classification accuracy; the Boruta-Shap algorithm performed feature subset screening on the full feature set and labels a feature as green when its importance score was higher than that of the shaded feature, defining it as an important variable for model construction. Based on the above-mentioned feature subset, an object-oriented classification model on remote sensing images was conducted using eCognition9.0 software. Firstly, after several experiments, the feature parameters for multi-scale segmentation in the object-oriented classification were determined, namely a segmentation scale of 1, a shape factor of 0.1, and a tightness of 0.5. Three object-oriented supervised classification algorithms, support vector machine (SVM), random forest (RF), and K nearest neighbor (KNN), were selected to construct wheat lodging classification models. The Overall classification accuracy and Kappa coefficient were used to evaluate the accuracy of wheat lodging identification. By constructing a wheat lodging classification model, the appropriate classification strategy was clarified and a technical path for lodging classification was established. This technical path can be used for wheat lodging monitoring, providing a scientific basis for agricultural production and improving agricultural production efficiency. [Results and Discussions] The results showed that increasing the altitude of the UAV to 90 m significantly improved flight efficiency of wheat lodging areas. In comparison to flying at 30 m for the same monitoring range, data acquisition time was reduced to approximately 1/6th, and the number of photos needed decreased from 62 to 6. In terms of classification accuracy, the overall classification effect of SVM is better than that of RF and KNN. Additionally, when the image spatial resolution varied from 1.05 to 3.26 cm, the full feature set and all three optimized feature subsets had the highest classification accuracy at a resolution of 1.05 cm, which was better than at resolutions of 2.09 and 3.26 cm. As the image spatial resolution decreased, the overall classification effect gradually deteriorated and the positioning accuracy decreased, resulting in poor spatial consistency of the classification results. Further research has found that the Boruta-Shap feature selection method can reduce data dimensionality and improve computational speed while maintaining high classification accuracy. Among the three tested spatial resolution conditions (1.05, 2.09, and 3.26 cm), the combination of SVM and Boruta-Shap algorithms demonstrated the highest overall classification accuracy. Specifically, the accuracy rates were 95.6%, 94.6%, and 93.9% for the respective spatial resolutions. These results highlighted the superior performance of this combination in accurately classifying the data and adapt to changes in spatial resolution. When the image resolution was 3.26 cm, the overall classification accuracy decreased by 1.81% and 0.75% compared to 1.05 and 2.09 cm; when the image resolution was 2.09 cm, the overall classification accuracy decreased by 1.06% compared to 1.05 cm, showing a relatively small difference in classification accuracy under different flight altitudes. The overall classification accuracy at an altitude of 90 m reached 95.6%, with Kappa coefficient of 0.914, meeting the requirements for classification accuracy. [Conclusions] The study shows that the object-oriented SVM classifier and the Boruta-Shap feature optimization algorithm have strong application extension advantages in identifying lodging areas in remote sensing images at multiple flight altitudes. These methods can achieve high-precision crop lodging area identification and reduce the influence of image spatial resolution on model stability. This helps to increase flight altitude, expand the monitoring range, improve UAV operation efficiency, and reduce flight costs. In practical applications, it is possible to strike a balance between classification accuracy and efficiency based on specific requirements and the actual scenario, thus providing guidance and support for the development of strategies for acquiring crop lodging information and evaluating wheat disasters.

Key words: wheat lodging, UAV, flight altitude, feature selection, classification model, SVM, RF, KNN

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