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Smart Agriculture ›› 2022, Vol. 4 ›› Issue (1): 140-149.doi: 10.12133/j.smartag.SA202203003

• Information Processing and Decision Making • Previous Articles    

Scale Adaptive Small Objects Detection Method in Complex Agricultural Environment: Taking Bees as Research Object

GUO Xiuming(), ZHU Yeping, LI Shijuan, ZHANG Jie, LYU Chunyang, LIU Shengping()   

  1. Agricultural Information Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences/Key Laboratory of Agri-information Service Technology, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Beijing 100081, China
  • Received:2021-12-31 Online:2022-03-30 Published:2022-04-28
  • corresponding author: LIU Shengping E-mail:guoxiuming@caas.cn;liushengping@caas.cn

Abstract:

Objects in farmlands often have characteristic of small volume and high density with variable light and complex background, and the available object detection models could not get satisfactory recognition results. Taking bees as research objects, a method that could overcome the influence from the complex backgrounds, the difficulty in small object feature extraction was proposed, and a detection algorithm was created for small objects irrelevant to image size. Firstly, the original image was split into some smaller sub-images to increase the object scale, and the marked objects were assigned to the sub-images to produce a new dataset. Then, the model was trained again using transfer learning to get a new object detection model. A certain overlap rate was set between two adjacent sub-images in order to restore the objects. The objects from each sub-image was collected and then non-maximum suppression (NMS) was performed to delete the redundant detection boxes caused by the network, an improved NMS named intersection over small NMS (IOS-NMS) was then proposed to delete the redundant boxes caused by the overlap between adjacent sub-images. Validation tests were performed when sub-image size was set was 300×300, 500×500 and 700×700, the overlap rate was set as 0.2 and 0.05 respectively, and the results showed that when using single shot multibox detector (SSD) as the object detection model, the recall rate and precision was generally higher than that of SSD with the maximum difference 3.8% and 2.6%, respectively. In order to further verify the algorithm in small target recognition with complex background, three bee images with different scales and different scenarios were obtained from internet and test experiments were conducted using the new proposed algorithm and SSD. The results showed that the proposed algorithm could improve the performance of target detection and had strong scale adaptability and generalization. Besides, the new algorithm required multiple forward reasoning for a single image, so it was not time-efficient and was not suitable for edge calculation.

Key words: object detection, machine vision, small object, farmland, bee, single shot multibox detector, YOLOv3

CLC Number: