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Table of Content

    30 March 2020, Volume 2 Issue 1
    Topic--Agricultural Remote Sensing and Phenotyping Information Acquisition Analysis
    Airborne remote sensing systems for precision agriculture applications | Open Access
    Yang Chenghai
    2020, 2(1):  1-22.  doi:10.12133/j.smartag.2020.2.1.201909-SA004
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    Remote sensing has been used as an important data acquisition tool for precision agriculture for decades. Based on their height above the earth, remote sensing platforms mainly include satellites, manned aircraft, unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) and ground-based vehicles. A vast majority of sensors carried on these platforms are imaging sensors, though other sensors such as lidars can be mounted. In recent years, advances in satellite imaging sensors have greatly narrowed the gaps in spatial, spectral and temporal resolutions with aircraft-based sensors. More recently, the availability of UAS as a low-cost remote sensing platform has significantly filled the gap between manned aircraft and ground-based platforms. Nevertheless, manned aircraft remain to be a major remote sensing platform and offer some advantages over satellites or UAS. Compared with UAS, manned aircraft have flexible flight height, fast speed, large payload capacity, long flight time, few flight restrictions and great weather tolerance. The first section of the article provided an overview of the types of remote sensors and the three major remote sensing platforms (i.e., satellites, manned aircraft and UAS). The next two sections focused on manned aircraft-based airborne imaging systems that have been used for precision agriculture, including those consisting of consumer-grade cameras mounted on agricultural aircraft. Numerous custom-made and commercial airborne imaging systems were reviewed, including multispectral, hyperspectral and thermal cameras. Five application examples were provided in the fourth section to illustrate how different types of remote sensing imagery have been used for crop growth assessment and crop pest management for practical precision agriculture applications. Finally, some challenges and future efforts on the use of different platforms and imaging systems for precision agriculture were briefly discussed.

    Indoor phenotyping platforms and associated trait measurement: Progress and prospects | Open Access
    Xu Lingxiang, Chen Jiawei, Ding Guohui, Lu Wei, Ding Yanfeng, Zhu Yan, Zhou Ji
    2020, 2(1):  23-42.  doi:10.12133/j.smartag.2020.2.1.202003-SA002
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    Plant phenomics is under rapid development in recent years, a research field that is progressing towards integration, scalability, multi-perspectivity and high-throughput analysis. Through combining remote sensing, Internet of Things (IoT), robotics, computer vision, and artificial intelligence techniques such as machine learning and deep learning, relevant research methodologies, biological applications and theoretical foundation of this research domain have been advancing speedily in recent years. This article first introduces the current trends of plant phenomics and its related progress in China and worldwide. Then, it focuses on discussing the characteristics of indoor phenotyping and phenotypic traits that are suitable for indoor experiments, including yield, quality, and stress related traits such as drought, cold and heat resistance, salt stress, heavy metals, and pests. By connecting key phenotypic traits with important biological questions in yield production, crop quality and Stress-related tolerance, we associated indoor phenotyping hardware with relevant biological applications and their plant model systems, for which a range of indoor phenotyping devices and platforms are listed and categorized according to their throughput, sensor integration, platform size, and applications. Additionally, this article introduces existing data management solutions and analysis software packages that are representative for phenotypic analysis. For example, ISA-Tab and MIAPPE ontology standards for capturing metadata in plant phenotyping experiments, PHIS and CropSight for managing complicated datasets, and Python or MATLAB programming languages for automated image analysis based on libraries such as OpenCV, Scikit-Image, MATLAB Image Processing Toolbox. Finally, due to the importance of extracting meaningful information from big phenotyping datasets, this article pays extra attention to the future development of plant phenomics in China, with suggestions and recommendations for the integration of multi-scale phenotyping data to increase confidence in research outcomes, the cultivation of cross-disciplinary researchers to lead the next-generation plant research, as well as the collaboration between academia and industry to enable world-leading research activities in the near future.

    Analysis of spatial pattern and ecological service value changes of large-scale regional paddy fields based on remote sensing data | Open Access
    Liu Yuan, Zhou Qingbo, Yu Qiangyi, Wu Wenbin
    2020, 2(1):  43-57.  doi:10.12133/j.smartag.2020.2.1.202001-SA002
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    Under the pressure of economy development and climate change, rice production and distribution in the Yangtze River basin have undergone great changes, which may pose a great threat to the ecological environment and food security. Based on land use remote sensing-monitoring data from1990 to 2015, the GIS spatial analysis method was used to explore the spatial pattern variation characteristics of paddy fields in the Yangtze River economic belt. Meanwhile, Ecosystem services value (ESV) was calculated by using the equivalent factor method corrected by region and time factor to measure the comprehensive impact of paddy field change. The results showed that, to begin with, paddy fields number of the Yangtze River economic belt continued to decrease, with a total decrease of 17 390km2, and the decrease rate presented a trend of growth with significant regional differences. The difference between the reduction rate of paddy fields in the middle upper and the lower reaches of the Yangtze River was about 9.56%. Among them, in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, the proportion of paddy fields decreased, while in the middle and upper reaches which was just the opposite. Then, paddy fields mainly flowed to construction land and water, resulting from economic construction and aquaculture development. Paddy fields chiefly came from water, dry land and wetland, etc. Furthermore, paddy fields in the Yangtze River Delta, the middle reaches of the Yangtze River and the Chengdu-Chongqing urban agglomerations changed the most dramatically. The expansion of construction land to paddy fields was widespread, and paddy fields flooded by water primarily distributed in the two lake plains. In addition, the conversion of paddy fields and other ecosystems had a positive impact on ESV, in which the paddy-water diversion type contributed the most. Its scale determined the net increase of ESV in different periods. Value loss lead by conversion from water to paddy fields was the largest, and construction land invading paddy fields was the second. The conversions in different cities were different, so the difference in ESV increases and decreases. In addition, the tradeoffs within ecosystem services were mainly between hydrological regulation, water supply and food production, gas regulation, which were directly related to the increase of water resources and the loss of paddy fields. The research results are helpful to reveal the spatio-temporal changes process of paddy fields in the Yangtze River basin and its impact on ecological functions, and provide theoretical support for regional land use planning, agricultural policy and ecological sustainable development.

    Using fusion of texture features and vegetation indices from water concentration in rice crop to UAV remote sensing monitor | Open Access
    Wan Liang, Cen Haiyan, Zhu Jiangpeng, Zhang Jiafei, Du Xiaoyue, He Yong
    2020, 2(1):  58-67.  doi:10.12133/j.smartag.2020.2.1.201911-SA002
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    Water concentration is a key parameter to characterize crop physiological and healthy status. It is of great significance of employing unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) low-altitude remote sensing technology to predict crop water concentration for crop breeding and precision agriculture management. UAV remote sensing has been widely used for monitoring crop growth status, mainly focusing on using vegetation indices to estimate crop growth parameters at single or several growth stages. Few studies have been performed on evaluating crop water concentration. Consequently, this study mainly used vegetation indices and texture features extracted from UAV-based RGB and multispectral images to monitor water concentration of rice crop during the whole growth period. Firstly, a multi-rotor UAV equipped with high-resolution RGB and multispectral cameras to collect canopy images of rice crop, and water concentration was also measured by ground sampling. Then, vegetation indices and texture features calculated from RGB and multispectral images were used to analyze the growth changes of rice. Finally, random forest regression method was used to establish a prediction model of water concentration based on different image features. The results show that: (1) vegetation index, texture features and ground-measured water concentration could be used to dynamically monitor rice growth, and there existed correlations among these parameters; (2) image features extracted from multispectral images possessed more potential than those from RGB images to evaluate water concentration of rice crop, and normalized difference spectral index NDSI771, 611 achieved the best prediction accuracy (R2 = 0.68, RMSEP = 0.039, rRMSE = 5.24%); (3) fusing vegetation indices and texture features could further improve the prediction of water concentration (R2 = 0.86, RMSEP = 0.026, rRMSE = 3.21%), and the prediction error of RMSEP was reduced by 16.13% and 18.75%, respectively. These results demonstrats that it is feasible to apply UAV-based remote sensing to monitor water concentration of rice crop, which provides a new insight for precision irrigation and decision making of field management.

    Comparison analysis of spatial and spectral feature in vegetation classification based on AVIRIS hyperspectral image | Open Access
    Fu Yuanyuan, Yang Guijun, Duan Dandan, Zhang Yongtao, Gu Xiaohe, Yang Xiaodong, Xu Xingang, Li Zhenhai
    2020, 2(1):  68-76.  doi:10.12133/j.smartag.2020.2.1.201911-SA005
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    With the development of hyperspectral sensor technology and remote sensing data acquisition platform, the application of hyperspectral data is becoming more and more popular in precision agriculture. Spectral features and spatial features are two main kinds of features used in hyperspectral image classification. The comparison of spectral features and spatial features in vegetation classification of hyperspectral image is a special application in hyperspectral image classification. Therefore, this study compared the performance of several typical spectral features and spatial features in vegetation classification of hyperspectral image. The considered spatial features include grey level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) based features, Gabor features and morphological features. The considered spectral feature selection or extraction methods include minimal-redundancy-maximal-relevance (mRMR), joint mutual information (JMI), conditional mutual information maximization (CMIM), double input symmetrical relevance (DISR), Jeffreys-Matusita (JM), principal component analysis (PCA), independent component analysis (ICA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). PCA, an effective subspace feature extraction method, is widely used in the feature extraction of hyperspectral image. The first several principal components (PCs) are usually selected as spectral features in hyperspectral image classification. However, the first several PCs have no guarantee to achieve good class separability and classification accuracy. Considering that, a hybrid feature extraction approach named as PCA_ScatterMatrix was proposed which combined PCA and an improved scatter-matrix-based feature selection method, aiming to select PCs with high class separability and get high overall classification accuracy. The experiments and comparative analyses were conducted with a widely used hyperspectral image, which was collected over the agricultural area in northwestern Indiana, USA (United States of America) by the AVIRIS (Airborne Visible / Infrared Imaging Spectrometer). The experimental results indicated that: (1) The proposed hybrid feature extraction method PCA_ScatterMatrix got the highest overall classification accuracy on both data sets (82.7% and 86.5%) among three classic subspace feature extraction methods (PCA, ICA and LDA) and respectively improved overall classification accuracy by 1.5% and 2.5% on both data sets, comparing to original PCA; (2) Compared to spectral features, spatial feature extraction methods generally got higher overall classification accuracy, especially Gabor spatial features got the highest overall classification accuracy on both data sets (95.5% and 96.7%). The results suggest that the proposed method is effective in vegetation classification of hyperspectral image and the spatial features play a much more important role in vegetation classification of hyperspectral image, comparing with spectral features.

    Remote sensing inversion of chlorophyll content in rice leaves in cold region based on Optimizing Red-edge Vegetation Index (ORVI) | Open Access
    Yu Fenghua, Xu Tongyu, Guo Zhonghui, Du Wen, Wang Dingkang, Cao Yingli
    2020, 2(1):  77-86.  doi:10.12133/j.smartag.2020.2.1.201911-SA003
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    Rice is one of the important staple crops in China, and the rice planted in Northeast China, such as in Liaoning, Jilin, and Heilongjiang regions, is called cold-region rice. The chlorophyll content in rice leaves is the most direct indicator of the rice growth period and can directly reflect on its nutritional value. Previous research demonstrates that when the chlorophyll content of rice changes, the reflectance of different bands changes at the spectral level. In addition, most of the research studies on the inversion of the rice’s chlorophyll content are based on the complex machine learning algorithms. Although the accuracy of the inversion of the constructed model has been improved, the structure of the model is relatively complex, and the model’s transplantation and universality are poor in the actual application process. Hence, in this study, the inversion of the chlorophyll content of rice leaves in the cold regions was assessed. An ASD ground object spectrometer was employed to procure the hyperspectral information of rice leaves in the critical growth period. On the basis of the feature selection method, the hyperspectral feature subset of the inversion of the chlorophyll content of rice was selected. The characteristic band vegetation index was constructed by combining the chlorophyll content absorption coefficients, and the chlorophyll content of rice was established through using regression analysis. Additionally, by combining the chlorophyll content absorption coefficients in the PROSPECT model, referring to the construction method and form of the existing hyperspectral vegetation index, and using correlation analysis, the continuous projection method and the genetic algorithm optimized the rough set attribute reduction, the hyperspectral features was selected, and the red edge optimization index (ORVI) with only 695, 507, and 465nm hyperspectral feature bands was proposed. Compared with the other vegetation indexes retrieved from the IDB database, namely, ND528,587, SR440,690, CARI, and MCARI, the results demonstrated that the determination coefficients of the abovementioned vegetation index inversion models were 0.672, 0.630, 0.595, and 0.574 respectively. The accuracy of the inversion model of chlorophyll content established by ORVI vegetation was higher than that of other vegetation indexes wherein the decision coefficients of the model were R2 =0.726 and RMSE = 2.68, revealing that ORVI can be used as a hyperspectral vegetation index for the rapid inversion of the rice’s chlorophyll content in practical applications. This research can thereby provide some objective data support and model reference for remote sensing diagnosis and management decision of the rice’s chlorophyll content in the cold regions.

    An algorithm for estimating field wheat canopy light interception based on Digital Plant Phenotyping Platform | Open Access
    Liu Shouyang, Jin Shichao, Guo Qinghua, Zhu Yan, Baret Fred
    2020, 2(1):  87-98.  doi:10.12133/j.smartag.2020.2.1.202002-SA004
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    The capacity of canopy light interception is a key functional trait to distinguish the phenotypic variation over genotypes. High-throughput phenotyping canopy light interception in the field, therefore, would be of high interests for breeders to increase the efficiency of crop improvement. In this research, the Digital Plant Phenotyping Platform(D3P) was used to conduct in-silico phenotyping experiment with LiDAR scans over a wheat field. In this experiment virtual 3D wheat canopies were generated over 100 wheat genotypes for 5 growth stages, representing wide range of canopy structural variation. Accordingly, the actual value of traits targeted were calculated including GAI (green area index), AIA (average inclination angle) and FIPARdif (the fraction of intercepted diffuse photosynthetically activate radiation). Then, virtual LiDAR scanning were accomplished over all the treatments and exported as 3D point cloud. Two types of features were extracted from point cloud, including height quantiles (H) and green fractions (GF). Finally, an artificial neural network was trained to predict the traits targeted from different combinations of LiDAR features. Results show that the prediction accuracy varies with the selection of input features, following the rank as GF + H > H > GF. Regarding the three traits, we achieved satisfactory accuracy for FIPARdif (R2=0.95) and GAI (R2=0.98) but not for AIA (R2=0.20). This highlights the importance of H feature with respect to the prediction accuracy. The results achieved here are based on in-silico experiments, further evaluation with field measurement would be necessary. Nontheless, as proof of concept, this work further demonstrates that D3P could greatly facilitate the algorithm development. Morever, it highlights the potential of LiDAR measurement in the high-throuhgput phenopyting of canopy light interpcetion and structural traits in the field.

    Apple detection model based on lightweight anchor-free deep convolutional neural network | Open Access
    Xia Xue, Sun Qixin, Shi Xiao, Chai Xiujuan
    2020, 2(1):  99-110.  doi:10.12133/j.smartag.2020.2.1.202001-SA004
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    Intelligent production and robotic oporation are the efficient and sustainable agronomic route to cut down economic and environmental costs and boosting orchard productivity. In the actual scene of the orchard, high performance visual perception system is the premise and key for accurate and reliable operation of the automatic cultivation platform. Most of the existing apple detection models, however, are difficult to be used on the platforms with limited hardware resources in terms of computing power and storage capacity due to too many parameters and large model volume. In order to improve the performance and adaptability of the existing apple detection model under the condition of limited hardware resources, while maintaining detection accuracy, reducing the calculation of the model and the model computing and storage footprint, shorten detection time, this method improved the lightweight MobileNetV3 and combined the object detection network which was based on keypoint prediction (CenterNet) to build a lightweight anchor-free model (M-CenterNet) for apple detection. The proposed model used heatmap to search the center point (keypotint) of the object, and predict whether each pixel was the center point of the apple, and the local offset of the keypoint and object size of the apple were estimated based on the extracted center point without the need for grouping or Non-Maximum Suppression (NMS). In view of its advantages in model volume and speed, improved MobileNetV3 which was equipped with transposed convolutional layers for the better semantic information and location information was used as the backbone of the network. Compared with CenterNet and SSD (Single Shot Multibox Detector), the comprehensive performance, detection accuracy, model capacity and running speed of the model were compared. The results showed that the average precision, error rate and miss rate of the proposed model were 88.9%, 10.9% and 5.8%, respectively, and its model volume and frame rate were 14.2MB and 8.1fps. The proposed model is of strong environmental adaptability and has a good detection effect under the circumstance of various light, different occlusion, different fruits’ distance and number. By comparing the performance of the accuracy with the CenterNet and the SSD models, the results showed that the proposed model was only 1/4 of the size of CenterNet model while has comparable detection accuracy. Compared with the SSD model, the average precision of the proposed model increased by 3.9%, and the model volume decreased by 84.3%. The proposed model runs almost twice as fast using CPU than the CenterNet and SSD models. This study provided a new approach for the research of lightweight model in fruit detection with orchard mobile platform under unstructured environment.

    Recognition method for corn nutrient based on multispectral image and convolutional neural network | Open Access
    Wu Gang, Peng Yaoqi, Zhou Guangqi, Li Xiaolong, Zheng Yongjun, Yan Haijun
    2020, 2(1):  111-120.  doi:10.12133/j.smartag.2020.2.1.202001-SA001
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    Excessive application of water and fertilizer not only causes resources serious waste of, but also causes serious environmental pollution. The implementation of precision irrigation and fertilization can effectively reduce nutrient loss and environmental pollution, save irrigation water and improve the utilization rate of water and fertilizer resources, which is one of the important ways to promote the sustainable development of agriculture. The use of the integrated water-fertilizer equipment can effectively improve the utilization rate of water-fertilizer resources, but it is necessary to know the nutritional status of crops and water-fertilizer demand before operation. To acquire the information by hand-held measuring instruments, there are some disadvantages, such as poor timeliness and high labor intensity. In response to the above problems, this study took the common corn crop as an example, used the DJI Phantom III drone to carry RedEdge-M multispectral camera to collect multispectral images of corn crops over the fields, and measured nitrogen and moisture content of corn plants by YLS-D series plant nutrition tester. Based on this information, the collected images were divided into 3 levels, each level contains 530 five channel images (2650 single channel images), including 480 five channel images (2400 single channel images) in the training set and 50 five channel images (250 single channel images) in the verification set, and a method of identifying the nutritional status of corn crops based on convolutional neural network was proposed. Based on the TensorFlow deep learning framework, ResNet18 convolution neural network model was constructed. By entering color image data and five-channel multispectral image data into the model, the nutritional status recognition model of corn plant suitable for color image and multispectral image was trained, and the experimental results showed that the trained model could be used to recognize the multispectral images of corn, and the nutritional status of corn, topdressing guidance and GPS information could be outputted, the correct rate of the recognition color image model in the verification set was 84.7%. The correct rate of identifying multispectral image model in the verification set was 90.5%, the average time of model training was 4.5h, and the average time of recognizing a five channel image is 3.56 seconds, which can detect the nutritional status of corn crops quickly and undamaged, and provides a theoretical and technical basis for the accuracy of the application of water fertilizer in intelligent agriculture.

    A fast extraction method of broccoli phenotype based on machine vision and deep learning | Open Access
    Zhou Chengquan, Ye Hongbao, Yu Guohong, Hu Jun, Xu Zhifu
    2020, 2(1):  121-132.  doi:10.12133/j.smartag.2020.2.1.201912-SA003
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    How to accurately obtain the area and freshness of broccoli head in the field condition is the key step to determine broccoli growth. However, the rapid segmentation and grading of broccoli ball remains difficult due to the low equipment development level. In this research, we combined an advanced computer vision technique with a deep learning architecture to allow the acquisition of real-time and accurate information about broccoli ball. By constructing a private image dataset with 442 of broccoli-ball images (acquired using a self-developed imaging system) under controlled conditions, a deep convolutional neural network named “Improved ResNet” was trained to extract the broccoli pixels from the background. The technical process of our method includes: (1) take the orthophoto images of broccoli head based on a near-ground image acquisition platform and establish the original data set; (2) preprocess the training images and input the model for segmentation; (3) use the PSOA and Otsu algorithm for fine segment based on color characteristics to obtain the freshness information. The experimental results demonstrated that the precision of the segmentation model is about 0.9 which is robust to the interference of soil reflectance fluctuation, canopy shadow, leaf occlusion and so on. Our experiments showed that a combination of improved ResNet and PSOA method got higher broccoli balls segmenting and grading precision. One major advantage of this approach is that dealing with only a few images, reducing the data volume and memory requirements for the image processing. All of the methods were evaluated using ground-truth data from three different varieties, which we also make available to the research community for subsequent algorithm development and result comparison. Compared with other 4 approaches, the evaluation results shows better performance regarding the segmentation and grading accuracy. The results of SSIM, precision, recall and F-measure by using Improved ResNet were about 0.911, 0.897, 0.908 and 0.907 respectively, which were 10%~15% higher than the traditional approaches. In addition, on the basis of the segmentation results, PSO-Otsu method was proved that it can be used to achieve a quickly analysis to the freshness of the ball, with the mean accuracy of 0.82. Overall, the proposed method is a high-throughput method to acquire multi-phenotype parameters of broccoli in field condition, which can support the research of broccoli field monitoring and traits tracking.

    Overview Article
    Research progress and developmental recommendations on precision spraying technology and equipment in China | Open Access
    He Xiongkui
    2020, 2(1):  133-146.  doi:10.12133/j.smartag.2020.2.1.201907-SA002
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    Chemical plant protection, which refers to using plant protection machinery sprays chemical pesticides, is the most important technology for pest and disease control at present, an important technical guarantee for food security, and also is essential for safeguarding agricultural production. Pesticide, spray technology and plant protection machinery are called the three pillars of chemical plant protection, which having been becoming a hot research topic in the world. Efficient, precise and intelligent spray technology and equipment can provide guarantee for the improvement of pesticide efficacy and utilization. With the issues of agricultural product safety and environmental protection getting more and more attention from the public, the research and development direction of Chinese plant protection field will gradually turn to intelligent and precision spraying technology and equipment. Since 2010 year, the great development potential and application value of intelligent and precision spraying technologies and equipment have been widely recognized worldwide. In this article, the main precision spraying technologies were reviewed, the research status, typical representative and application progress of plant protection equipment in different working scenarios were classified and summarized. The challenges in the development of precision spraying were analyzed, the countermeasures and suggestions were put forward. This research can provide new methods and new ideas not only for implementation of China's pesticide reduction plan, the promotion of intelligent plant protection equipment and precision spraying technology, but for the development of modern agriculture.

    Developmental analysis and application examples for agricultural models | Open Access
    Cao Hongxin, Ge Daokuo, Zhang Wenyu, Zhang Weixin, Cao Jing, Liang Wanjie, Xuan Shouli, Liu Yan, Wu Qian, Sun Chuanliang, Zhang Lingling, Xia Ji‘an, Liu Yongxia, Chen Yuli, Yue Yanbin, Zhang Zhiyou, Wan Qian, Pan Yue, Han Xujie, Wu Fei
    2020, 2(1):  147-162.  doi:10.12133/j.smartag.2020.2.1.202002-SA006
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    Agricultural models, agricultural artificial intelligent, and data analysis technology, etc., exist in whole processes of information perceiving, transmission, processing and control for smart agriculture, thus they are the core technology of smart agriculture. To furtherly make the substances and functions of agricultural models clear, facilitate its further research and application, drive smart agriculture development with healthy, steady, and sustainable, methods of systematic analysis, comparison, and chart for relationship, etc. were used in this research. The definition, classification, functions of the agricultural models were theoretically analyzed. The relationships between the agricultural models and the elements and processes of the smart agriculture were expounded, which made the functions of agricultural models clear, provided some agricultural models examples applied in the smart agriculture. The important studies and application progresses of agricultural models were reviewed. The comparison results of agricultural models showed that the 4 levels of agricultural biological elements, 6 scales of agricultural environmental elements, 6 administrative levels of agricultural technological and economic elements, and the relevant approaches for modeling agricultural system need to be considered. The research and application of multi-space scales on environment elements in the agricultural models would have the larger potential. The combination of agricultural models with molecular genetics, perceiving, and artificial intelligence, the collaboration among public and private researchers, and food security challenges have been an important power for further development of agricultural models, linking agricultural models with various agricultural system modeling, databases, harmonious and open data, and decision-making support systems (DSS) would be focus on. The research and application of the agricultural models in China have formed crop model series with Chinese characteristics, joined in the world trends of the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP), the smart agriculture, and so on. They should be speedy graspe chances and accelerate development. The agricultural models is a quantitative express of relationships within or among the agricultural system elements. An important method with epistemological values of quantifying and synthesizing agricultural sciences, and will play an indispensible role in data achieving and processing for the smart agriculture combining perceiving techniques, and become a significant bridge and bond.