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Smart Agriculture ›› 2020, Vol. 2 ›› Issue (1): 133-146.doi: 10.12133/j.smartag.2020.2.1.201907-SA002

• 综合研究 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国精准施药技术和装备研究现状及发展建议

何雄奎   

  1. 中国农业大学药械与施药技术研究中心,北京 100193
  • 收稿日期:2019-07-18 修回日期:2020-01-19 出版日期:2020-03-30 发布日期:2020-04-17
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(31761133019);国家重点研发计划智能农机重大专项(2017YFD0700903);国家现代农业产业技术体系(CARS-28-20)
  • 作者简介:何雄奎(1966-),男,博士,教授,研究方向:植保机械与施药技术,电话:010-62731446,Email:xiongkui@cau.edu.cn
  • 通讯作者: 何雄奎(1966-),男,博士,教授,研究方向:植保机械与施药技术,电话:010-62731446,Email:xiongkui@cau.edu.cn E-mail:caohongxin@hotmail.com

Research progress and developmental recommendations on precision spraying technology and equipment in China

He Xiongkui   

  1. Center of Chemicals Application Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China
  • Received:2019-07-18 Revised:2020-01-19 Online:2020-03-30 Published:2020-04-17
  • corresponding author: Cao Hongxin E-mail:caohongxin@hotmail.com

摘要:

植物化学保护即使用植保机械喷施化学农药是当前最主要的病虫害防控方法,一直以来对保障农业生产安全与粮食有效供给起至关重要作用。能够实现按需精准施药、变量施药、人机分离与人药分离的高效、精准、智能的施药技术和装备是提高农药药效与利用率的保证,也是保障食品安全、降低农民劳动强度的重要措施,是目前国内外研究的热点。本研究对精准施药关键技术及研究现状进行了分析,对适用于不同作业场景的精准施药装备的研究现状、典型代表、应用进展等进行了分类总结,分析了目前精准施药发展中面临的挑战,并提出了对策和建议。本研究可为精准施药技术研究的推进、智能施药装备的研发和现代化农业的发展提供参考和思路。

关键词: 精准施药, 变量施药, 自动对靶喷雾, 仿形喷雾机, 喷杆喷雾机, 无人机

Abstract:

Chemical plant protection, which refers to using plant protection machinery sprays chemical pesticides, is the most important technology for pest and disease control at present, an important technical guarantee for food security, and also is essential for safeguarding agricultural production. Pesticide, spray technology and plant protection machinery are called the three pillars of chemical plant protection, which having been becoming a hot research topic in the world. Efficient, precise and intelligent spray technology and equipment can provide guarantee for the improvement of pesticide efficacy and utilization. With the issues of agricultural product safety and environmental protection getting more and more attention from the public, the research and development direction of Chinese plant protection field will gradually turn to intelligent and precision spraying technology and equipment. Since 2010 year, the great development potential and application value of intelligent and precision spraying technologies and equipment have been widely recognized worldwide. In this article, the main precision spraying technologies were reviewed, the research status, typical representative and application progress of plant protection equipment in different working scenarios were classified and summarized. The challenges in the development of precision spraying were analyzed, the countermeasures and suggestions were put forward. This research can provide new methods and new ideas not only for implementation of China's pesticide reduction plan, the promotion of intelligent plant protection equipment and precision spraying technology, but for the development of modern agriculture.

Key words: precision spray, variable spray, target spray, copying sprayer, boom sprayer, drone

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