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Smart Agriculture ›› 2021, Vol. 3 ›› Issue (4): 53-65.doi: 10.12133/j.smartag.2021.3.4.202106-SA009

• Topic--Agricultural Products Processing and Testing • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Detection of Peel Puffing and Granulation in Citrus Based on Soft X-ray Imaging Technology

XU Qian(), CAI Jianrong(), DU Can, SUN Li, BAI Junwen   

  1. School of Food and Biological Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, China
  • Received:2021-06-26 Revised:2021-09-22 Online:2021-12-30


The internal quality of citrus is an important index for citrus grading, and the most common factors affecting the internal quality of citrus are peel puffing and granulation, which affect the fruit quality and lose the market value due to the large consumption of nutrients. In this study, a soft X-ray imaging device was developed, including a transmission device, a soft X-ray imaging device, a trigger device and a soft X-ray protection device, for the problem that traditional methods cannot detect citrus peel puffing and granulation efficiently and non-destructively. In this research, the detection parameters were determined according to the physical characteristics of wide peeled citrus, and the clarity, contrast and aberration rate of citrus images were used as the judging criteria. The best imaging parameters were determined by adjusting the parameters of the imaging device as follows: The tube voltage of X-ray source was 60 kV, the tube current was 1.3 mA, the integration time of line array detector was 5.5 ms, and the transmission speed of citrus conveyor belt was 10 cm/s. The aberrations in the column direction were detected by the circular hole metal plate, and the results showed that the transmission speed was stable and the aberrations in the column direction were negligible. The aberrations in the row direction ware detected by using the 70 mm stainless steel calibration sphere, and the projection aberration coefficients at different positions in the row direction were calculated, and the aberration correction model was established. The soft X-ray images of citrus were acquired under the above parameters, and Gaussian filtering was used to denoise the citrus images. The image enhancement algorithm was used to enhance the contrast of the denoised images. The fixed threshold segmentation method and morphological algorithm were fused to remove the background area, separate the flesh area and the peel area of the citrus images. Finally, the area percentage method was used to calculate the ratio of citrus flesh area to citrus fruit area to discriminate the degree of citrus peel puffing; the grayscale features of citrus fruit area were extracted to obtain the citrus withered area, and the ratio of citrus withered area to citrus flesh area was calculated to discriminate the degree of citrus granulation. Qingjiang Ponkan were taken as the experimental object, and the results showed that the overall recognition rate of the homemade soft X-ray imaging device were 96.2% and 86.9% for the peel puffing and granulation of Qingjiang Ponkan, respectively. The method proposed in this study may achieve nondestructive detection of peel puffing and granulation inside citrus.

Key words: soft X-ray imaging, citrus, image processing, peel puffing, granulation, detection

CLC Number: