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Smart Agriculture ›› 2020, Vol. 2 ›› Issue (3): 48-60.doi: 10.12133/j.smartag.2020.2.3.202007-SA006

• 专题--农业人工智能与大数据 • 上一篇    下一篇

设施温室影像采集与环境监测机器人系统设计及应用

郭威1(), 吴华瑞1,2,3(), 朱华吉1,2,3   

  1. 1.国家农业信息化工程技术研究中心,北京 100097
    2.北京农业信息技术研究中心,北京 100097
    3.农业农村部 农业信息技术重点实验室,北京 100097
  • 收稿日期:2020-07-22 修回日期:2020-09-08 出版日期:2020-09-30 发布日期:2020-12-09
  • 基金资助:
    平谷农业科创区农业人工智能创新服务平台建设及示范应用(Z191100004019007);国家自然科学基金项目(61871041);河北省重点研发计划项目(19226919D)
  • 作者简介:郭 威(1990-),男,博士研究生,主要研究方向为农业智能系统。E-mail:guowei@nercita.org.cn
  • 通讯作者: 吴华瑞 E-mail:guowei@nercita.org.cn;wuhr@nercita.org.cn

Design and Application of Facility Greenhouse Image Collecting and Environmental Data Monitoring Robot System

GUO Wei1(), WU Huarui1,2,3(), ZHU Huaji1,2,3   

  1. 1.National Engineering Research Center for Information Technology in Agriculture, Beijing 100097, China
    2.Beijing Research Center for Information Technology in Agriculture, Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, Beijing 100097, China
    3.Key Laboratory of Agri-Informatics, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Beijing 100097, China
  • Received:2020-07-22 Revised:2020-09-08 Online:2020-09-30 Published:2020-12-09
  • corresponding author: Huarui WU E-mail:guowei@nercita.org.cn;wuhr@nercita.org.cn

摘要:

中国设施园艺近30年来发展迅速,面积目前居世界首位,但由于务农人数呈下降趋势,如何用“机器代替人力”成为当前研究热点。为实现设施温室生产的数据感知环节作物影像和环境监测数据精细化采集,本研究设计了一套多自由度设施温室影像采集与环境监测机器人系统。机器人由感知中枢、决策中枢和执行中枢三部分构成,分别进行机器视角环境感知、数据分析与决策指令生成和动作执行。在感知层实现多角度图像、实时视频和监测数据网格化精确采集,为作物多源异构数据精细化汇聚奠定基础;传输层通过无线网桥将监测数据与控制指令汇聚至本地数据中心;数据处理层通过作物基础模型分析进行控制指令反馈信息,同时对上传图像进行预处理;最终在应用层提供web端和手机端智能服务。系统可广泛地应用在设施温室生产与研究中,用于黄瓜、番茄、大棚桃等作物的全生育期图像、实时视频和监测数据收集与分析处理,已在北京小汤山国家精准农业基地7号日光温室、石家庄市农林科学研究院5号日光温室进行示范应用,取得了较好的效果。

关键词: 设施温室, 农业机器人, 环境监测, 机器视觉, 病害识别, 远程控制, 深度学习

Abstract:

China's facility horticulture has developed rapidly in the past 30 years and now comes to the first in the world in terms of area. However, the number of farmers is decreasing. "Machine replaces labor" has become the current research hotspot. In order to realize the fine collection of crop images and environmental monitoring data, a three-dimensional environmental robot monitoring system for crops was designed. The robot consists of three parts: perception center, decision center and execution center, which carry out environmental perception from machine perspective, data analysis, decision instruction generation and action execution respectively. In perception layer, the system realized real-time videos, images, data monitoring such as air temperature, air humidity, illumination intensity and concentrations of carbon dioxide in grid scale from multi-angle with high accuracy. At the system level, automatic speech recognition was integrated to make the system easier to use, especially for farmers who usually work in the fields. In transport layer, monitoring data and control instructions were converged to local data center through wireless bridges. Concretely, transmission mode was chosen according to different characteristics of data, wire transmission is available for big size data, such as images and videos, while wireless transmission is mainly applied to small size data, such as environmental monitoring parameters. In data processing layer, feedbacks and control instructions were made by multi-source heterogeneous data of crop model analysis, in terms of commands, independent inspection mode and real-time remote-control mode were available for users. Plant type, user information, historical data and management data were taken into consideration. Finally, in application layer, the system provided web and mobile intelligence services that could be used for the whole growth periods in terms of images, real-time videos, monitoring data collection and analysis of cucumbers, tomatoes, greenhouse peaches, etc. The system has been demonstrated and applied in solar greenhouse No. 7 of Beijing Xiaotangshan National Precision Agriculture Base and No. 5 of Shijiazhuang Agricultural and Forestry Science Research Institute with good achievements. Farmers and researchers have realized real-time monitoring, remote control and management. On one hand, the system can used to avoid working in extreme environment, such as high temperature and pesticide environment. On the other hand, with the help of the robot, independent inspection and data collection could achieve instead of people, and it is very intuitive in time-saving and indirect costs saving for productions and researchers. The results showed that the system could be widely applied in greenhouse facilities production and research.

Key words: unmanned farm, agricultural robots, environmental monitoring, machine vision, disease recognition, remote control, deep learning

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